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This website provides online access to the complete legislative record of Edmund S. Muskie, who served as a U.S. Senator from 1959 to 1980. During his twenty-two years in Congress, Muskie was a member on the Environment and Public Works Committee, the Foreign Relations Committee, and the Governmental Affairs Committee. In addition, he chaired the Senate Committee on the Budget, the Air and Water Pollution Subcommittee (later known as the Environmental Pollution Subcommittee), and the Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee. He was active in writing new laws, including the early environmental protection legislation of 1963 and 1966, and sponsorship of numerous acts, including the Intergovernmental Relations Act (1959), the Model Cities Act (1966), the Clean Air Act (1970), the Clean Water Act (1972), and the Budget Reform Act (1974). Muskie’s legislative record is long, complex, and vitally important to understanding his historical contributions to environmentalism, budgetary reform, fiscal responsibility, and myriad other aspects of 20th century politics in the United States.


The Online Legislative Record of Senator Edmund S. Muskie is unique in its dedicated and complete coverage of the legislative work of a U.S. Senator. The site is intended to serve as a complement to the Edmund S. Muskie Papers held by the Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library, Bates College. By making all of Muskie's Senate floor activities immediately searchable and accessible, the site provides a tool for researchers to efficiently contextualize documents within the Muskie Papers. In addition, it allows researchers to better pinpoint where in the extensive collection of more than 3,000 linear feet of material to search for items of interest based on Muskie's legislative work.



The Online Legislative Record of Senator Edmund S. Muskie replicates in full all entries pertaining to Muskie published in the Congressional Record Index. The Congressional Record is the daily compilation of the words and actions of Congress, acting in session, published by the U.S. government. At present, the Library of Congress provides online access to the Congressional Record beginning with the 101st Congress in 1989 (


This website significantly augments the Index by providing subject indexing for the same references. Each index entry links to a brief explanation of the event it reflects. If an entry reflects only the appearance of the Senator’s name, as is often the case, the explanation will specify this. Where it reflects the Senator’s actions in the Senate, a description and, in some cases, a link to a text of a speech or an excerpt from the general debate is provided; these excerpts and speeches were transcribed directly from the Congressional Record. The explanatory notes provide contextual information to assist researchers in understanding pertinent background and historical information about each event or action, such as what specific Senate rule or practice was being followed.


How to Use

There are three ways to access information on this website:


1. Browse the Congressional Record Index

Researchers can browse references to Muskie as published in the Congressional Record Index. The Congressional Record Index is arranged in categories such as “Addresses,” “Bills and Amendments,” “Motions sponsored by,” and so on.

2. Browse by Subject

Researchers can browse Muskie’s legislative record by broad subject categories, such as “Economy, Commerce, Agriculture, Fisheries,” “Energy,” and “Environment, Parks, Historic Preservation, Wildlife.” These topics are further subdivided by year.


3. Search by Keyword

Researchers can search the explanatory notes, indexes, and full texts of Muskie speeches and floor statements (when provided) by keyword.


How to Cite

Those aspects of this website which are transcribed directly from the Congressional Record, such as an entire section, a quote by a specific speaker, or the text of a bill, should adhere to the following guidelines when citing material:

  • Speaker, include the title "Representative" (use for speakers in pages beginning with H) or "Senator" (use for speakers with pages beginning with S) if the speaker's first name is not provided. In addition, identify the home state of the speaker, if it is provided.
  • Title, as provided for each entry
  • Cong. Rec. page number (located in the header information for each entry)
  • Date of entry
  • "Text from: Online Legislative Record of Senator Edmund S. Muskie"
  • "Available from: [URL]"


Those aspects of the website provided by the compiler and editor, such as explanatory notes, should be cited as follows:

  • "Jensen, Anita (ed.)"
  • "Explanatory note for [Congressional Record page number(s), date(s)]"
  • "Text from: Online Legislative Record of Senator Edmund S. Muskie"
  • "Available from: [URL]"


Example Citations


Muskie, Edmund S. [ME]. Urban Mass Transportation. 20549. June 23, 1977. Text from: Online Legislative Record of Senator Edmund S. Muskie. Available at:


Hart, Senator. Address by Senator Muskie Before the National Environmental Policy Conference. 20783. June 24, 1977. Text from: Online Legislative Record of Senator Edmund S. Muskie. Available at:


Jensen, Anita (ed.). Explanatory note 20549, June 23, 1977. Text from: Online Legislative Record of Senator Edmund S. Muskie. Available at:



The Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library wishes to thank the following individuals and institutions for making this website possible:


Anita Jensen, who served as Muskie’s legislative assistant from 1972 until 1980, worked diligently on the Muskie Congressional Record Project for the better part of a decade. Ms. Jensen provided all the transcription, indexing, and explanatory notes which comprise the content of this website. Because of her first-hand knowledge of Muskie’s legislative work, her insights are invaluable for researchers orienting themselves to Muskie’s career and accomplishments.


The Edmund S. Muskie Foundation generously funded the Muskie Congressional Record Project. Special thanks go to Leon Billings, President of the Foundation, who has generously provided his time, expertise, and moral support to this and many other Muskie-related projects at the Archives.


Jim Hart, Web Programmer/Analyst, at Bates, deserves special thanks for his technical work encoding, publishing, and indexing the content of the site to make it available online and searchable.


Updated June 2010 by Processing Archivist Christie Peterson.