Produced by Robert W. Allison
Assoc. Prof of Religion, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine and
Research Fellow Ektaktos of the Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, Thessaloniki
© 1996 Robert W. Allison. All rights reserved.

Bibliography on Watermarks and Papers in Greek Manuscripts

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Contents of the Bibliographical Database

The divisions of the Bibliography are: Until the database grows enough to merit separate pages, the four divisions will be maintained on this page.

Printed Bibliographies on Watermarks in Greek Mss

| Form for Submission of Bibliography
The Alkaline Paper Advocate
Publishes listings of new books and articles with capsule descriptions. Available on line at http://sul-server-2.stanford.edu/byorg/abbey/ap/ (See the contents list for each issue s.v. "Literature") Relevant items are reproduced here with credits to the Alkaline Paper Advocate.

Paul Canart, Paleografia e codicologia greca: una rassegna bibliografica. Vatican City, 1991, pp. 52-58.

Dieter Harlfinger, "Zur Datierung von Handschriften mit Helfe von Wasserzeichen." in Dieter Harlfinger, ed., Griechische Kodikologie und Textüberlieferung. Darmstadt, 1980, pp. 144-69.

Watermark Catalogs

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Ash, Nancy and Shelley Fletcher, Watermarks in Rembrandt's Prints . Washington DC, National Gallery of Art, 1998 . Pp.
This reference work presents the first systematic inventory of papers used in Rembrandt's etchings. Watermarks in Rembrandt's printing papers are organized and cross-referenced in two related sections: the Watermark Catalogue and the Bartsch Concordance. The Watermark Catalogue organizes the material by watermark type, systematically categorizes watermarks on Rembrandt's printing papers and identifies papers used in specific states of individual prints. The Bartsch Concordance organizes the same material according to the numbers established by Adam Bartsch, and later modified by White and Boon. Research took place over a nine year period, and was completed in 1990.
Contents: The volume contains an introductory essay by the authors; an essay by Jan Piet Filedt-Kok, director of collections of the Rijksmuseum; the Watermark Catalogue, which includes exact-size reproductions of watermark radiographed in American collections (c. 200 distinct watermarks) and at the Rijksmuseum (c.40 additional watermarks; the Bartsch Concordance; and a summary of information relating to the disposition and ownership of Rembrandt's etching plates. Methodology: Watermarks in this study were recorded either through beta or x radiography, or identified through direct comparison of a radiograph negative with the watermark in an etching paper using transmitted light. Watermarks are compared with each other and with hand tracings of watermarks in published sources (Heawood, Churchill, et. al.)

Dieter and Johanna Harlfinger, Wasserzeichen aus griechischen Handschriften. Berlin, Verlag Nikolaus Mielke, 1974.

General & Theoretical Bibliography

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Peter Bower, "Who Made This Rubbish?-The Historical Investigation of Particular Twentieth-Century Papers," IPH 6. Jahrgang, Heft 1, 1996, p. 12-20.
This paper is a serious and important description of the research involved in trying to find out where a sheet of paper came from, so that its makeup can be determined from mill records, thus avoiding a long and expensive analysis. The author is concerned here with the needs of paper conservators, but forensic scientists would also find it useful. (1E4) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 9, no. 2, July, 1996]

Kerstin Dürschner, "Bericht über das Colloquium Online-Datenbank zur Wasserzeichenerschliessung Bad Homburg, 12.-14. 6. 1995" (Report of the Colloquium on an Online Watermark Database, Bad Homburg, June 12-14, 1995), IPH v.5 #2, 1995, p. 24-27, 30-32.
At the Werner-Reimer Foundation, an interdisciplinary colloquium took place for the purpose of discussing the conditions for the creation of an online watermark data bank. It was decided to study, in addition to an online solution, the possibility of issuing data in CD-ROM form and in a short-term, internationally based pilot project, first to gain experience with software, survey and search rasters, display processing, etc. Following this--provided adequate financing is assured--a definitive project can be formulated. [From the Summary] (1E) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 8, no. 4, Dec, 1995]

GATF staff, "Densitometers Today," GATFWorld, March/ April 1995, p. 6-11.
A clearly written, illustrated summary of densitometers and their uses, especially for printers. The densitometer was invented in 1933 to rate the density and contrast of images. One of the citations in the bibliography is : S.J. Popson, "A Comparison of Densitometers, Reflectometers, and Colorimeters." Tappi Journal , March 1989, p. 119ff. (3.77) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 8, no. 2, May, 1995]

J. C. Gutierrez, "Beta Radiation and X-Ray Examination of Watermarks," Invest. Tec. Pap., v. 32, No. 124, Apr. 1995, pp. 354-359. (In Spanish) (PBA Abstract 1392, 1996)
New investigative techniques using radiography, electrography and beta radiation are being developed. Museums worldwide seek reliable classification methods. Betagraphy has produced the best results to date, characterized by low beta and gamma emissions and requiring little postuse treatment. [Note: This issue of Investigación y Tecnica del Papel has five other papers on the history, reproduction and registration of watermarks.] (1E4) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 9, no. 1, June, 1996]

Annaclara Palau, Les copistes de Guillaume Pélicier, évêque de Montpellier (1490-1567), Scriptorium 40 (1986) 225-37.
The author's research on the Greek manuscripts in the library of Guillaume Pélicier, the French ambassador to Venice between 1539-42, relied heavily upon analysis of the watermarks to supplement other palaeographical and documentary evidence.

"International Database Launched," short news item in PIMA Magazine, May 1995, p. 22.
French, Finnish, Swedish and British paper organizations will develop a joint international database covering the world's pulp and paper information. It will be marketed worldwide under the name of Paperbase International. Pira International will collect the information and coordinate production. Paperbase will be available in hard copy formats, on CD-ROM and online.
The other three organizations are the Centre Technique de Papier (CTP), Oy Keskuslaboratorio Centrallaboratorio AB (KCL), and the Swedish Pulp and Paper Research Institute (STFI).
A letter to subscribers from Pira International in June said that Paper and Board Abstracts would be called Paperbase Abstracts from the July issue on. Beginning with January 1996, it will expand into A4 format. It is part of the same joint venture, but presumably this will be the paper manifestation of the database that PIMA Magazine called Paperbase International. Coverage will be expanded and the number of abstracts is expected to double. The present subscription price is £550 per year. (5B5) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 8, no. 2, July, 1996]

L. Rodes, "Watermarks--Part III: A Systematic Classification," Papel v. 56 #12, Dec. 1995, pp. 56-57 (in Portuguese; PBA Abstract 4559, 1996)
In 1986 the typology proposed by Peter Tschudin was adopted by the Institute of Paper Historians. Other criteria for classification are the period in which the watermark was made (prior to 1450, 1450-1600, 1600-1750 and 1750 onwards) and where it was made. (1E4) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 9, no. 2, July, 1996]

Allan Stevenson, Observation on Papers as Evidence, Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Libraries, 1961. 28 pp. (Univ. of Kansas Publications. Library series, No. 11)
This reference is one of a large number on paper history from the Deutschen Buch- und Schrift-Museum in the Deutsche Bücherei, Leipzig, published in IPH 5 no. 2, 1995. (1E) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 8, no. 4, Dec, 1995]

P.F. Tschudin, "History of Paper Making: A Modern Methodology for an Auxiliary Science," Investigaci-n y Tecnica del Papel, v. 32, No. 124, Apr. 1995, pp. 240-246. (In Spanish) (PBA Abstract 2416, 1996)
Physicochemical analysis since the 1980s has made possible greater accuracy in dating and establishing provenance of old papers. Watermarks are still of the greatest interest in dating papers. Quality control methods used in current production can apply equally to paper dating. A complete database of watermarks and paper types is one project now underway. (1E3). [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 9, no. 1, May, 1996]

Jane Roberts, A Dictionary of Michelangelo's Watermarks. Milan, 1988.

"Security Enhancements for MICR Papers." Sidebar in the story, "Desktop MICR: A Look at Supplies Players, Opportunities for Growing Niche Market," in Imaging Supplies Monthly, July 1995, p. 1-5. The sidebar is on p. 4. It lists ten security measures discussed in the text. Addresses for all suppliers are given in another sidebar.
Security Watermark Visible Fibers Fluorescent Ink or Fibers Moore's LogoLine Endorsement MooreGuard VOID Pantograph Standard Register Void Pantograph Microprinting Chemical Void Bleach Brown Stain Solvent Reactive Stain (3B2.16)

Stephanie Watkins, "Chemical Watermarking of Paper," Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Fall 1990, p. 117-132.
Chemical watermarking of paper was first patented in 1959 by Fox River Paper Corporation, which now licenses the technology to other mills. The author describes methods of identification and tells how it reacts to various conservation treatments. She found that the marks in naturally aged samples were beginning to disappear into the surrounding paper structure. Short-wave UV radiation at 180-280 nm is the easiest method of identification. All solvents used had the effect of moving or eliminating the watermarks, and washing the paper in alkaline solutions (a common practice) blurred the marks and made them indistinct under UV radiation. Bleaches and bleach neutralizers gave varying results. (1E4)

Paper Conservation Issues & Developments

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S.B. Lee, J. Bogaard, and R.L. Feller, "Damaging Effects of Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Radiation on Paper," In Historic Textile and Paper Materials II: Conservation and Characterization (ACS Symposium Series 410). American Chemical Society, 1989, p. 54-62.
This is not a new publication, but it concerns a matter of general interest--the effects of visible light, as well as UV radiation, on papers with little or no lignin content. Perhaps this paper is not as well known as it might be. "Daylight" fluorescent lamps were used as the light source, and all three of the papers were aged at 90°C and 50% RH after light exposure. The graphs show a moderate decline in degree of polymerization (DP) and folding endurance, and a moderate rise in hot-alkali-soluble matter (a result of oxidation) after 800,000 to 1,300,000 footcandle hours of light exposure. However, the results of the subsequent thermal aging are amazing, especially for the Whatman filter paper: Thermal aging for 20 days caused a loss of DP about seven times as great as that caused by the prior light aging. The other papers also deteriorated rapidly from heat after they had been "set up" for it (From the June Abbey Newsletter. 3B1.24) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 9, no. 2, July, 1996]

Y.H. Xu, "Aging of Book Paper," Pap. Pap. Making no. 2: 51-52 (March 1995). In Chinese.
Ancient Chinese books have stayed in good condition for thousands of years, but modern books have deteriorated quite rapidly. The author reviews the relationship of all aspects of the papermaking process, including pulping, bleaching, sizing, chemical additives, and storage environments, and strategies are provided for prolonging book life. (3B1.1) [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 9, no. 4, Dec, 1996]

Audio-Visual Resources

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Georgia-Pacific, Atlanta, has released a complimentary new video, "Step into the World of Papermaking."
The purpose of the video is to educate the general public about the papermaking process and the various uses of paper in daily life. It also highlights recycling and offers instructions on making paper by hand. To receive a free copy, contact G-P's Sample Service Department at 800/635-6672. (3B3)

"Papermaking" is a series of five videotapes by Tim Barrett, published by the University of Iowa Center for the Book.
The reviewer in Paper Conservation News said that it differs from most available audiovisual materials on the subject in its distinct "how to" emphasis, covering all key steps in both Western and Japanese hand papermaking. The five tapes are:
Japanese Style Papermaking I: Simple Equipment and Techniques (80 min.)
Japanese Style Papermaking II: Traditional Equipment and Techniques (50 min.)
Japanese Style Papermaking III: Professional Equipment and Techniques (70 min.)
Western Papermaking I: Classroom Equipment and Techniques (55 min.)
Western Papermaking II: Professional Equipment and Techniques (55 min.)
Price: $60/tape or $250 for the set, from UICB Papermaking Video Tapes, 364 English Philosophy Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. (From the Nov. Abbey Newsletter. 3B3.2)

Studies of Individual Watermarks

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V. Mosin, Anchor Watermarks in Monumenta chartae papyraceae historiam illustrantia 13. Amsterdam, 1973.

F. Schmidt, "Mozart, the Three Moons and Systematic Exploitation of Watermarks," Int. Pap. Hist., v. 5 no. 2, 1995, pp. 202-4. (In German) (PBA Abstract 2110, 1996)

Musicology is one of the major fields for the study of watermaarks. Alan Tyson has edited the watermarks which appear in the autograph manuscripts of Mozart and found new methods of analysis and description. (1E4). [Cited from the Alkaline Paper Advocate vol. 9, no. 1, May, 1996]

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Created by Robert W. Allison
Dept. of Philosophy & Religion, Bates College
Lewiston, Maine 04240

© 1996 Robert W. Allison. All rights reserved.

Last updated: December 12, 1997