Short Term in Nature Photography
STANDARD DARKROOM PROCEDURE
DEVELOPMENT OF BLACK & WHITE FILM
1. Dilute stock developer (HC 110) 1:7 (35 ml: 245 mm for a
single reel tank, 70:490 for a two) in tap H2O at 20OC.
2. With light off, load film from cassette onto reel or plastic
apron, place in tank and secure cover.
3. Add developer (via light tight spout) and agitate every 30 sec
for 4.5 min (Pan-X), 5 min (Plus-X), or 7.5 min (Tri-X).
4. Pour off developer and immediately fill tank with acid stop
bath solution. Once full, agitate for 30 sec and then pour off the stop bath. [Note: Acids should be neutralized
before they go down the drain].
5. Add fixer, tap side of tank & agitate every 30 sec for 4 min.
6. Pour off fixer (save) and remove tank cover. Rinse once in tap water (30 sec). Add hypo clearing agent and agitate for 1 to
2 min. Pour off the clearing agent (save) and then wash in
running water for 5 min. (Hypoclear should be diluted from
7. Add a half capful of Photo-flo solution to tap water in tank.
Agitate for 30 sec.
8. Hang film up to dry.
9. Rinse thoroughly all glassware, tank and reel and set out to
dry. Wipe down counter. Wipe up all spills. DO THIS NOW.
FIXER POWDER IS ESPECIALLY NASTY. DRIED CHEMICALS ARE HARD
TO CLEAN. CLEAN UP YOUR OWN MESS!!!
PRINTING (BLACK & WHITE)
1. Dilute Dektol developer 1:2 with 20OC water. The amount to mix
will be determined by the size of prints to be developed
(and therefore the size of the printing tray). Avoid mixing
2. Stop Bath: Add about 5 ml of concentrated acetic acid to 1500
ml water (20OC). If concentrated acetic acid drips on your
skin, RINSE IMMEDIATELY! For indicator stop bath, follow
directions on the stock bottle.
3. Fixer: Dilute stock fixer 1:1 with 20OC water. Fixer can be
used full strength with corresponding decrease in fixer
times, but with corresponding increase in noxious fumes. The
latter technique is recommended for small jobs only.
Undiluted fixer can be saved (if it is still good) for later
use. Fixer used for developing paper does not last well due
to evaporation and exposure to air.
4. Dilute hypoclearing agent 1:4 (i.e. 1 part with 4 parts).
5. Make sure that the enlarger lamp is plugged into the timer and
the timer into the electrical outlet.
6. Use lever to lift lamp housing and remove 35 mm negative
carrier. Insert selected negative, replace the carrier and
lower the lamp housing.
7. Select lens for desired enlargement size and make sure that
the autofocus tract and light condensor position correspond.
8. TURN OFF ROOM LIGHT. TURN ON SAFE LIGHTS.
9. Turn timer Focus switch to on position. Loosen set knob and
then roll enlarger lamp along track to obtain desired
enlargement. Tighten set knob. With lens diaphram completely
open (and the lens cap off), focus enlarger lens (check
image grain). At this stage, if necessary, readjust
enlargement and refocus.
10. Stop enlarger lens diaphram down (to say f 5.6 or f 8 --
depends on contrast filter used) and insert desired contrast
11. Turn off enlarger lamp (focus switch). WITH ONLY SAFE LIGHTS
ON, remove a test strip of paper. CLOSE BOX CAREFULLY.
12. Determine correct exposure time by using exposure wheel or a
test strip. For a negative of proper density, optimal
exposure times are between 5 and 30 seconds. An image should
appear in developer within 10 sec (papers vary on this) and
total development should take between 60 to 90 sec. Check
for proper exposure under normal light after the paper has
been in fixer.
13. Normal times: Developer 20-90 sec
Stop 30-60 sec
Fix 5-7 min *not for resin
Water Rinse (.5-1 min)* coated paper;
Clear (3 min,DW)* DW= double wt
(2 min,SW)* SW= single wt
Wash 15-20 min
Reminder: NEVER OPEN A BOX OF PHOTO PAPER WITH ROOM LIGHTS
OR ENLARGER LIGHT ON!
14. Remove negative from enlarger. Leave arm in down position.
Replace enlarger lens cap. Claen and replace filters and/or
15. If you haven't already done so, appropriately record use
of reusable chemicals.
16. CLEAN UP AFTER YOURSELF. Don't wait to do this. Wipe down
counter and rinse all trays and glassware. Wipe off surfaces
of storage bottles.
CLEAN UP MUST BE DONE BEFORE YOU LEAVE THE DARKROOM. YOU
NOT FINISHED WITH A JOB UNLESS THE DARKROOM IS CLEAN AND TIDY.
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