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May 7, 1980

Page 10271


The assistant legislative clerk read the nomination of EDMUND SIXTUS MUSKIE of Maine to be Secretary of State.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Under the previous agreement, 5 minutes has been allotted to the Senator from North Carolina, Mr. HELMS; the Senator from Idaho, Mr. CHURCH; and the Senator from New York, Mr. JAVITS. The yeas and nays have previously been ordered.

Who yields time?

The Senator from Idaho is recognized.

Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, I yield myself such time as I may require of the 15 minutes allotted to me.

Mr. President, we are being asked today to advise and consent to the nomination of EDMUND MUSKIE to be the Secretary of State. Speaking for myself — and I suspect for nearly everyone in this Chamber — there can be no more welcome request.

ED MUSKIE has been a friend and colleague for many years. He is a Senator whose judgment and sense of duty I respect highly. Now the President has asked Senator MUSKIE to take on heavy new responsibilities at a time when the country cries out for sound leadership and a consistent, understandable statement of national purpose in our foreign policy.

As I noted at the hearing held by the Foreign Relations Committee this morning, Senator MUSKIE has been nominated to become our Nation's 56th Secretary of State. Of his predecessors in that office, 28 have come from the Senate and of those 28, 19 have come from the Foreign Relations Committee.

Cordell Hull, chosen from the Senate, served as our Secretary of State during World War II and James Byrnes, also chosen from the Senate, served during the initial phases of the cold war. Now Senator MUSKIE has been tasked to the post at a moment in history that is also fraught with danger.

In moments of peril and international tension, we have a healthy tendency in this country to draw together, not as Republicans or Democrats, but as Americans. I urge my colleagues today in the Senate to unite in this same spirit and to support the nomination of their colleague, ED MUSKIE.

I can think of no man better equipped to pursue the process of consultation that can unite the executive and legislative branches of government in common purpose in these times of need.

Mr. President, at the confirmation hearing this morning, ED MUSKIE made an opening statement encompassing his general views and the approach he intends to take in his new responsibilities.

I think it would be most appropriate that that statement appear at this point in the RECORD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that Senator MUSKIE'S statement be printed in the



There being no objection, the statement was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows:


Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee: Lengthy opening statements at confirmation hearings have not been our practice. I will not begin a new tradition today.

Let me begin with a basic point: I believe now, as I believed a week ago, that the Congress must be a full partner in designing our international posture and must be fully informed on its implementation. The Administration, the nation, and our foreign policies are the stronger when the Congress is consulted before major policy decisions are made, and during the course of major negotiations.

This is the first of what I expect to be many discussions with this Committee. I look to Capitol Hill — to my colleagues and friends here — for guidance as well as support, for suggestions and healthy challenge.

I also want to take a moment to offer some general views — on our foreign policy . . . on the role of the Secretary of State . . . on the connection between our international posture and our condition at home.

We are a nation of great power. Our actions and decisions have global effects. For our own people, for our friends around the world — and for those who are not our friends — our fundamental course must always be clear.

I have brought no detailed new blueprint to this hearing. Only days ago I was seated on your side of this room.

In the days ahead I will be carefully reviewing all significant elements of our international posture.

Presumably I will recommend to the President that we adjust some old policies and assert some new initiatives.

But I can certainly state this much now: I would not be here if I did not support the central elements of the foreign policy now in place — the policy that has been fashioned by President Carter and Secretary Vance.

While there may be changes, there will also be continuity. Our nation's foreign policies will continue to serve our nation's interests — the same interests that previous administrations and previous Secretaries of State have sought to defend and advance.

Let me begin with my fundamental beliefs.

I believe in strong American defenses. We must maintain the military balance. We must continue to modernize all elements of our defense forces. Dollars spent on defense, as in any other area, must never be dollars wasted.

I believe in strong alliances — in our collective defense, in continuing to strengthen our forces, in consulting regularly and with trust.

I believe in a firm and balanced policy toward the Soviet Union. The search for common ground has been disrupted not by American preference but by Soviet action. While aggression continues we must not relent in imposing a heavy price. As Soviet policies allow, we must never be blind to opportunities to work for peace.

I believe that balanced arms control agreements fortify our security. The SALT II agreement is no gift to our rivals; it can serve our own interests by limiting the threats we face.

I believe in a positive diplomacy of active engagement. It is in our interest to work for peace in troubled areas, especially the Middle East. It is to our advantage to improve our relations with nations which have interests in common with us — including many whose views and values differ from ours. We must build our new relationship with the People's Republic of China. We must continue to broaden our ties to the nations of the Third World and of Eastern Europe.

And I believe that America must stand for human progress. Our freedom and rights are more secure when freedom and human dignity are advanced around the world. Our own economy is strengthened by the economic progress of others. We must lead international efforts to surmount an international energy crisis and its consequences; to address the condition of hundreds of millions of human beings living in degrading poverty; and to strengthen an international trading system that is fair to our workers and our farmers, our businessmen and our consumers.

These past months have been times of great trial. Terrorism in Iran . . . aggression in Afghanistan . . . radical escalation in the price of petroleum . . . these and other challenges will test us fully in months to come.

But the past few years have been times also of accomplishment and strong American leadership.

Modernization of conventional and theater nuclear forces in NATO .. . Camp David . . . SALT II . . . China normalization . . . the Panama Canal treaty . . . peace in Zimbabwe . . . regular economic summits . . . successful multilateral trade negotiations . . . human rights advances in many countries . . . each is a new strength we can use to buttress American leadership in the future.

I am confident of that leadership or I would not be here before you. Americans want their country to be a constructive international presence. And we are. We have many strengths, not least of which is our system of values, founded upon a belief in individual worth.

Your inquiry today is directed not only to the substance of our foreign policies, but also to my concept of the role of the Secretary of State.

The Secretary of State must carry out a number of duties. And priorities must be set among them.

These are my priorities.

First, and most important, the Secretary of State is the principal adviser to the President on foreign policy issues. He must have the primary responsibility for recommending our foreign policy course, and seeing that the President's decisions are then implemented. President Carter has made it clear that he expects me to play this role, and I intend to do so.

Second, the Secretary of State is the President's principal spokesman for his foreign policies. I intend to be very active in this role. I strongly believe in the value of clear and direct public discussion of our foreign policies. And I intend to consult very closely with the Congress on the shape and direction of our foreign policies.

Third, the Secretary of State must make sure that the State Department and the Foreign Service, as a whole, are fully engaged in the processes by which policy is made . . . and in discussions of foreign policy with the Congress and our public. Neither the Secretary nor the Department can succeed if they do not have confidence in each other, and work together.

I intend to make full use of the Department, and our Ambassadors, in a fourth role: the conduct of our diplomacy abroad. There are times when only a Secretary of State can manage a negotiation for our nation. But to the extent possible, I will limit my own travel and rely on our skilled diplomats. A Secretary of State has other roles, as well: in administration of the State Department, in helping manage and coordinate the overseas activities of U.S. government agencies, and in managing the flow of information from the State Department to the White House and other agencies. Each must be carried out efficiently. Each should require less of the Secretary's time than the first roles I discussed.

This is my concept of the job. The President has said that he supports me in it. I will need your support, and counsel, as well. Let me conclude with these thoughts:

I come to this new assignment after twenty-two years as a member of the United States Senate. I have participated with many of you in the foreign policy debates of the past decade — indeed, the past generation.

Through these trials our society has been moved to strengthen and vigorously exercise our machinery for dissent and disagreement. That is all to the good. We are better for it.

But our challenges call on us to focus as intently upon another part of our national character — our ability to pull together and respond as Americans when our interests are under attack.

I do not believe there can be unanimity on the great and complex questions before us. But there can be a spirit of cooperation as we address them. I appear before you today in that spirit.

Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, I yield to our distinguished majority leader.

Mr. ROBERT C. BYRD. Mr. President, I thank the distinguished chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. .

With this vote, we confirm the appointment of EDMUND MUSKIE, of Maine, as Secretary of State. This action marks the transformation of Mr. MUSKIE from holder of one of this Nation's highest elective offices — U.S. Senator — to the holder of one of this Nation's highest appointive offices — Secretary of State.

ED MUSKIE becomes Secretary of State at a very difficult moment in international affairs. He assumes his responsibilities in the midst of a series of ongoing problems — the hostage situation in Iran, the brutal Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, the negotiations on Palestinian autonomy.

Relations with some allies and some nations of the Third World are strained, and there is much speculation about the direction of American foreign policy.

This is, as well, a difficult moment in our domestic political life. We are in the middle of a heated Presidential election campaign. The Nation faces economic problems. The climate of opinion in America is uncertain.

I know of no man in America better suited to meet the challenges of these difficult times than ED MUSKIE. I have known ED MUSKIE now for 22 years. During that time, I have worked closely with him in the Senate. And during the years that I have served as majority leader, I have worked even more closely with him in dealing with some of the most difficult problems that have come before the Senate. Increasingly, I came to lean upon ED MUSKIE for the strength and the vision that he gave to the problems that confronted this Senate over that period. My admiration for him has continued to grow over the years.

He is a man of uncommon courtesy, unquestioned integrity, and unusual intellect. He is equal to the tasks he faces as Secretary of State. He is an example of the best that public life has to offer.

Anyone who knows ED MUSKIE knows he will be the President's No. 1 foreign policy adviser. And he will put his own personal stamp on U.S. foreign policy, just as he has for years put his own personal stamp on the legislation that has been enacted by the Congress of the United States. He is not a man to be a caretaker.

As I have stated, I view the transformation of the distinguished Senator from Maine into the Distinguished and Honorable Secretary of State with mixed emotions: the State Department's gain is the Senate's loss. What matters is that the Nation continues to benefit from the services of ED MUSKIE.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Who yields time?

Mr. BAKER. Mr. President, on behalf of Senator JAVITS, who has control of this time, I yield myself 1 minute.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Tennessee.

Mr. BAKER. Mr. President, I want to take but just a moment to pay my respects to the President of the United States for a wise choice in the selection of our colleague, Senator ED MUSKIE, to be the next Secretary of State.

I, too, have known ED MUSKIE for many years. We have served together on the Environment and Public Works Committee, spanning the entire time of my service in the committee. It has been one of the rare privileges of my career to share that forum with him and share many issues on which we often agree and sometimes disagree with equal enthusiasm.

Mr. President, I believe that Senator MUSKIE will be in the tradition of the great Secretaries of State who have served this Nation. I believe he will serve as Cordell Hull, my predecessor in office who succeeded to Secretary of State, served.

I see great progress for this country in foreign policy under the guidance of my colleague and friend ED MUSKIE of Maine.

I congratulate him on this elevation and I pay my highest respects to the President for his choice.

I express my regret that we will lose him as a colleague. I cheer that we have a man of his capability and competence at the helm of the Department of State.

I now yield 1 minute, on behalf of the Senator from New York, to the distinguished Senator from Maine (Mr. COHEN) .

Mr. COHEN. Mr. President, ED MUSKIE has been a friend to me ever since I was elected to Congress in 1972.

He never has allowed partisan considerations to divide us — we have differed on a number of issues but that difference was never divisive or bitter or personal. He is noted as being a man of passion. I recall Justice Holmes once spoke of public-spirited men when he said that—

Life is action and passion and one must share in that action and passion at the risk of being judged not to have lived.

ED MUSKIE will never be judged not to have lived because he has shared in the action and passion of his days and now has been asked to undertake an even more formidable challenge that faces our country.

His selection by President Carter to be Secretary of State is a proud moment for Maine, but I share the majority leader's ambivalent emotions about it.

The State of Maine has been well served by his dedication, his intelligence, and pursuit of excellence in this body for the past 22 years. The State of Maine is going to lose one of its most effective voices in the history of the Senate. The Senate is going to lose one of its most able legislators. But the country will gain a man who will bring great credit to the office of Secretary of State and a sense of coherency to our foreign policy.

I am going to miss ED MUSKIE's daily friendship and his leadership. I am going to join in wishing my friend Godspeed in his new office, and I only hope that should I be fortunate to spend another 20 years in this body I shall be able to measure up to the standard of excellence he has set.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Who yields time?

Mr. RANDOLPH. Will the Senator from North Carolina yield?

Mr. HELMS. Mr. President, I will be glad to yield 1 minute of my time to the Senator from West Virginia.

Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr. President, I am appreciative to my colleague.

Mr. President, those of us on the Environment and Public Works Committee feel closer, perhaps, to ED than even members of other committees on which he has served. In 1963, the Senator from Maine became the first chairman of our Air and Water Pollution Subcommittee. I salute him, as do all members of the committee, as he leaves us now. We will always remember that the streams are cleaner and the air purer because of what he has accomplished in the committee and the Congress.

We shall remember you not only on the Hill, but we shall, regardless of political affiliation work with you in the Cabinet, ED, to the very best of our conscience and commitment. I have cherished our personal friendship for 22 years. Through your leadership America will be secure and ultimately the peoples of this world will live in understanding and peace.

No navigator ever distinguished himself on a calm sea, it has been written. Our Republic is in troubled waters. ED MUSKIE will apply his steady hand to the rudder.


In 1963, Senator MUSKIE became the first chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution. For the past 17 years, he has been Congress' principal authority on legislation to protect the Nation's air and water. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts are monuments to his foresight and judgment, and his ability to express the Nation's will to preserve our natural heritage and restore a healthful environment.

His capacity for coping with complex and controversial matters in environmental law is well known. ED MUSKIE has been a careful legislator, whose attention to environmental bills has been firm and fair.

This is a measure of the patient and deliberate style of Senator MUSKIE, our leader in these areas of environmental law. ED MUSKIE has believed the Congress should fully analyze and consciously decide each part of the Nation's environmental policy. The examination given these bills at Senator MUSKIE's insistence until a consensus of the committee and the Senate support it, have produced environmental laws which are workable, and effective.

Senator MUSKIE has not confined himself to domestic environmental problems. He has been a leader in the Senate and in the Nation on international environmental issues.

One of the catalytic events for international environmental issues was the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. Senator MUSKIE was designated as a U.S. delegate to that Conference, but because of the Presidential campaign, had to relinquish his spot to an alternate. However, his statements on the Senate floor prior to that Conference were used by the congressional delegation to the Stockholm Conference. They helped this country play a constructive role in establishing a United Nations international organization with emphasis on protection of the environment.

Senator MUSKIE has served as one of the Senate advisers to the Law of the Sea Conference. In this capacity he has always shown a great interest in those negotiations. When those negotiations appeared to be taking a tack that would not lead to adequate environmental protection of the marine resources of the world, he intervened to articulate the view that such protection was essential. This same interest surfaced most recently in the Senate's consideration of the deep seabed mining legislation. Senator MUSKIE led Senate efforts in seeing that environmental requirements were met during any exploration and processing activities undertaken in the oceans.

Senator MUSKIE led Senate efforts to assure that the National Environmental Policy Act applied to international environmental impacts as well as domestic impacts. When efforts were made to curtail this interpretation, he held hearings on the subject and vigorously argued on the Senate floor to protect the application of this law to U.S. activities abroad.

ED MUSKIE recognized the problems that oil spills were creating along our shorelines, and forged legislation to create an oil spill liability scheme to clean up the discharge of oil and hazardous substances into navigable waters. This effort began with the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970, and was expanded to include hazardous substances in 1972. These laws created strong incentives for owners of vessels and on-shore facilities to handle their products with an improved level of care in order to avoid spills and to move quickly to clean up spills which occurred. That legislation has now led to efforts to apply those same principles to the improper disposal and release of hazardous substances generally.

The legislative backbone for action for a clean environment was passed primarily through the leadership of Senator MUSKIE. Among these pieces of legislation were:


The Clean Air Act of 1963, authorizing Federal research and technical assistance to the States, and matching grants to States, regional, and local agencies for the creation or improvement of regulatory control programs, with Federal enforcement responsibility in interstate pollution cases.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1965, providing the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare with authority to establish auto emission standards.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1966, providing grants to the States to maintain effective air pollution programs.

The Air Quality Act of 1967, which established a policy to prevent deterioration of clean air, and provided for designation of air quality control regions and, for the setting of air quality standards.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970, which required the establishment of national air quality standards to protect public health and welfare, to be achieved nationwide by specified deadlines; provided tools for the achievement of these standards, including the establishment of stringent auto emission standards and stationary source standards; and set penalties for polluters and authorized citizen action to enforce the laws.

The Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974; which provided for short-term variances for stationary sources from emission limitations when clean fuels were not available; provided for extension of compliance date requirement for sources which converted to coal; and authorized a 1-year extension of statutory auto emission standards.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, which reaffirmed the national commitment to achieving public health related air quality standards and compliance with stringent auto emission standards by statutory deadlines, established a framework for the prevention of significant deterioration of clean air, established a flexible policy to permit development in dirty areas conditioned on reasonable progress toward achieving air quality protective of public health, and set up a tough new civil penalty policy for stationary sources out of compliance with applicable requirements.

The Water Quality Act of 1965, that enunciated a national policy of water quality enhancement; established a water quality standards program; and increased grants for construction of municipal sewage treatment facilities.

The Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966, authorizing $3.4 billion in Federal grants for municipal sewage treatment facilities, and eliminating limitations on grants which restricted participation by major cities.

The Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970, which strengthened Federal authority to deal with oil pollution, sewage from vessels, and pollution from Federal and federally approved facilities.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, which created a two-phase program of effluent controls to achieve water quality which is suitable for swimming and the propagation of fish and wildlife by 1983; increased Federal grant assistance for municipal waste treatment facilities to $18 billion over 3 years; and provided funds for long-range areawide waste management planning.

The Clean Water Act of 1977, which authorizes an additional $25 billion to continue the municipal wastewater treatment construction grant program; and redirects the industrial effluent control program to target on the removal of toxic pollutants.

And he worked with me on:

The Resource Recovery Act of 1970, which provided financial assistance to the States for the construction of solid waste disposal facilities; and authorized research into innovative methods of reusing, recovering, and recycling wastes.

The 1976 amendments to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, which established the program for the control of hazardous wastes and provided for State and local government solid waste management planning and a ban on open dumping.

Senator MUSKIE's subcommittee interests have expanded in recent years to include additional environmental legislative activities, such as the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act. He also took the leadership in developing the environmental portions of the Deep Water Port Act of 1974 and the Outer Continental Shelf lands oil spill title in 1978.

Mr. MATSUNAGA. Will the Senator yield?

Mr. HELMS. I am delighted to yield 1 minute to my friend from Hawaii.

Mr. MATSUNAGA. Mr. President, it is on extremely rare occasions that the Chief Executive makes a move which is unanimously acceptable to the Congress. This is one of the rare occasions. I congratulate both the President and Senator MUSKIE on the occasion.

Mr. HELMS. I yield 1 minute to the Senator from Vermont.

Mr. STAFFORD. Mr. President, I wish to be associated with what our distinguished chairman, Senator RANDOLPH, has said about our distinguished colleague, now about to be our Secretary of State, ED MUSKIE. I think I particularly will miss ED MUSKIE a great deal on the Environmental Subcommittee where we have struggled through many battles together. He will be irreplaceable. I hope I will not jinx his undertaking his service as Secretary of State by almost quoting somebody who once said to a different person what I will use in this way: I think I am going to sleep better, personally, and I believe the Nation will, because ED MUSKIE is Secretary of State.

Mr. DOMENICI. Will the Senator yield 30 seconds?

Mr. HELMS. Mr. President, if I may reserve 2 minutes of my time, I will yield 30 seconds to the Senator from New Mexico.

Mr. BAKER. On behalf of Senator JAVITS I yield 1 minute to Senator DOMENICI.

Mr. DOMENICI. I thank the Senator.

Mr. President, I, too, have served my entire 71/2 years all of it on committees with ED MUSKIE. I want to say to him personally that I am absolutely convinced that the U.S. Senate is a much better place because he served on it.

I now know that America's relationships with other countries will also be better for your service as Secretary of State. We will miss you, but we wish you great success.

Mr. HELMS. Mr. President, this morning in the Foreign Relations Committee I cast what was for me the most difficult vote I have cast since coming to the Senate. It was difficult in the most personal way. I think my friend, Senator MUSKIE, knows that. The advise and consent responsibility of a Senator speaks for itself. The Constitution does not say that we shall advise and consent on the basis of friendship. Our obligation is to act on every nomination on the basis of what is best for the country. I trust I made clear this morning that my vote on this nomination was in no way an indication of disaffection for a man for whom I have great personal affection. If there is any doubt about it — and I am sure there is none in ED MUSKIE's mind — let me emphasize it again for the record.

The inescapable truth is that the vote on this nomination is a referendum on U.S. foreign policy. It is not a referendum on how much we like ED MUSKIE. It is, I say again, a referendum on the existing U.S. foreign policy and I share the view of millions of Americans that it is a policy that has been a disaster for the United States and for the free world.

My friend from Maine, whom all of us are going to miss, made clear this morning that he intended to continue and to pursue that very policy.

So it is with deepest respect personally and the greatest affection that I say to my friend ED MUSKIE, that I am glad you will continue to have the privileges of the Senate floor. To my recollection there has not been another Secretary of State who has been able to come on this floor to watch us at close range. I wish you well and I assure you, ED, if I may bend the Senate rules and address you in the first person, that I want to work with you in any way I can.

Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that a statement I released earlier this afternoon be printed in the RECORD at this point.

There being no objection, the statement was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows:



The vote on Ed Muskie's nomination was really a referendum on existing U.S. foreign policy — and I share the view of millions of Americans that this policy has been a disaster for the United States and the free world. Senator Muskie made clear in his comments today that he agrees with this policy, and that he will pursue it. Moreover, his voting record has been constantly supportive of this policy — including the giveaway of the Panama Canal, the abandonment of Taiwan, and many other crucial issues. As I made clear at the committee hearing this morning, I consider Ed Muskie my friend — but a friend with whom I have strongly disagreed in matters of crucial foreign policy. He knows that I do not hold him in disaffection — but, as I said earlier, if my own brother, whom I love dearly, were nominated for this post, and if he pledged to continue this disastrous foreign policy, I could not support him. I wish Ed well, and will work with him in any proper way for the benefit of America.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The remaining time is under the control of the Senator from New York.

Mr. JAVITS. I yield a half minute to the Senator from South Carolina.

Mr. HOLLINGS. Mr. President, I had the distinction of meeting Senator MUSKIE 20 years ago when Senator RIBICOFF and I were appointed to the Intergovernmental Relations Advisory Commission. ED MUSKIE was the innovator of it. He was the originator of our theme here and the theme was standard long before other themes. He was the innovator of the sunset provision to bring accountability into the open. Of course, of all things, he brought the balanced budget and the budget process to the Congress. If we are doing any good at all, and we have our fingers crossed for mighty close point, Mr. President, I can say right to the point it has been because of his leadership and what he has left us all by way of an outstanding staff and precedent. We are grateful to you, ED.

Mr. President, as our good friend ED MUSKIE prepares to leave the Senate and take up the burdens of his new office, I want to say just a few words about ED and the service he has given his country already.

For the past couple of days, I have been busily occupied on this floor in handling the first concurrent budget resolution. This particular budget, and indeed the whole congressional budget process, owes its lifeblood to the senior Senator from the State of Maine. Without the good judgment and wise leadership of Senator MUSKIE at the helm, the budget process would not have survived these past 5 years. And let no one underestimate the magnitude of what has been accomplished. No longer does the Congress go haphazardly through the maze of Government financing. We look at the budget whole now, we assess its impact on the totality of the American economy, we as a body set the targets and encourage the discipline so necessary if we are to have fiscal discipline. This kind of procedure is absolutely essential, but the need alone is not enough to produce the result. For that ,we need leadership, conciliation, and tough-minded judgment: It took an ED MUSKIE to make the process work, and that process will always be associated with him as one of his proudest achievements as U.S. Senator.

But those achievements go far beyond just the world of budget ledgers and finance. No one has worked so hard, and effectively, on the problems of air and water pollution as our wise friend from Maine, and he was hard at it long before it became fashionable, or "chic," to do so. Here is yet another enduring Muskie legacy.

I know many other Senators wish to speak today, and I will not monopolize the time of the Senate any more than I already have with the budget resolution today, to recite all the particular accomplishments of this fine public servant. But I do wish to say a few words about ED MUSKIE the Senator and the man. It has been one of the inspirations of my 14 years in the Senate to work alongside him. When I think of ED MUSKIE, I think of his rock-ribbed integrity.

His first question of a proposal is always as to its essential rightness or wrongness, and before the powerful Muskie personality and talent is put behind a measure, the Senator from Maine must be convinced beyond the shadow of a doubt that what he is working for is good and just and right.

In a time of change and flux, and when so many lead by political poll, ED MUSKIE stays true to the fundamental values and virtues which built this country and took it to greatness. His compass is a moral compass, and it is always true.

The next thing I think of when I think of ED is that finely honed analytical mind. He has few peers, inside the Senate or outside, when it comes to the ability to look at a complex issue, break it down to its essentials, and to evaluate its every facet. He makes the difficult seem easy, although he knows it never is so easy. He is a man for the times, when there are no simple solutions, and when the keenest of judgment calls are required almost every day.

I think too of his candor. I know I speak for many colleagues as well as for myself when I say how much more productive it is to deal with a person who tells it straight from the shoulder, who pulls no punches, and who tells it just exactly as he sees it. That, again, is a quality becoming all too rare these days. And it is a quality which has a lot to do with the many legislative achievements made by the Senator from Maine.

The Senate's loss is the Carter administration's gain now. ED MUSKIE brings new distinction, and urgently needed talents, to the Department of State in these trying days for America. Carried one step further, the strengths and talents he takes to the administration will be the Senate's gain too, because I foresee a new era of cooperation and understanding between the State Department and the Congress of the United States.

He will bring stability, judgment, candor, and imagination to a job necessitating all these qualities. And he brings the experience of a quarter century in public life, during which he has become thoroughly familiar with foreign problems as well as domestic. He knows the issues, he knows the statesmen of the world, and anyone who thinks ED MUSKIE needs an apprenticeship as Secretary of State just does not know very much about their man.

We look forward now to a new relationship with our good friend, and while we will not see him on the day-in, day-out basis of the past 22 years, we will still have his leadership, his counsel, and his friendship. I particularly plan to take full advantage of the friendship he and I have developed, as we work on the budget and other items which carry the Muskie imprint.

The President has made a superb choice. The Senate knows it and is acting with dispatch to get him on the job in State. To ED, to Jane, our heartfelt thanks for what you are to us, and our best wishes and full support as the two of you set sail on this new challenge.

Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, when the roll was called this morning in the Foreign Relations Committee, the clerk called MUSKIE and he voted "present." I think that is symptomatic of why we take such pride and pleasure in his appointment to be Secretary of State of the United States.

In the substance of what makes foreign policy, I hope the Senator will consider an indissoluble link with the Senate and with the Congress. We are in deep trouble. Our policy is in grave disarray. It has always been said around here that when we are in trouble we close ranks. But with whom and for what purpose is the question.

The Senator comes to the executive department with a constituency. That is the critical make way in his becoming the new Secretary of State.

They say in my faith, behold, I have given you a good doctrine, forsake it not. That is what I would like to say to our new Secretary of State. Congratulations to him and to Jane.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from West Virginia.

Mr. ROBERT C. BYRD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that Mr. MUSKIE may have 5 minutes to address the Senate. May I say to all of my colleagues that the request has already been entered providing for statements of Senators to be entered into the RECORD before the close of business today.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered.


Mr. ROBERT C. BYRD. Mr. President, I also ask unanimous consent, Mr. President, that immediately following the vote, after the Senate has returned to legislative session, that the Senate stand in recess for 5 minutes that we may extend our good wishes and congratulations as well as our statements to Senator MUSKIE.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered.

Mr. NELSON. Will the Senator yield for 2 minutes?

Mr. ROBERT C. BYRD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that I may have 2 minutes to yield to Mr. NELSON.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered.

Mr. NELSON. Mr. President, I wish to go on record as concurring with what my colleagues have said about Senator MUSKIE. I have known him for 22 years. He had the great good perceptive judgment to come into my State in 1958, without even knowing who I was, to campaign in my behalf. I do not know whether he would do it after having become acquainted with me or not.

All of us who have had the opportunity to work with him — and I once had the privilege of serving on his committee on air and water pollution — have admiration for the dedication, the intelligence, the courage with which ED MUSKIE approached every problem that he confronted.


Many things have been said about ED MUSKIE here and I just wish to say one thing about a matter that is as important to this country as any other issue that has been before the country and the Congress in my memory. That is the contribution that En MUSKIE has made in the environmental field.

He has contributed more than anyone else in this country to fight to establish the standards of air quality and water quality for this country. It has been a magnificent achievement when one looks back at where we were in the late 1960's and where we are now. Senator MUSKIE has shown in his contributions to the legislation his legislative efforts have resulted in programs that have improved the quality of the water and the air in this country dramatically. This is probably the most important thing that we have done environmentally in the past 10 years. It will serve as a mark of great distinction and credit to Senator MUSKIE after he and all of us are long gone.

I congratulate Senator Muskie and I wish him well in his important enterprise. I am satisfied that he will perform there with great distinction as he did as Governor of his State and as a Member of the U.S. Senate.

I thank the majority leader.

Mr. STEVENS. Mr. President, today marks a proud moment for the U.S. Senate as one of our own is about to be confirmed as the next Secretary of State. EDMUND MUSKIE has served this body with great distinction for over 22 years and this new challenge represents yet another milestone in his illustrious political career.

Senator MUSKIE has earned his reputation as the Senate's most vociferous and able champion of environmental causes. Under his authorship, the Senate passed major Federal clean air and water laws. As one of his adversaries with respect to some of this legislation, I know firsthand how tenacious he can be in defense of the principles he believes in.

Along with Senator HENRY BELLMON, the senior Senator from Maine has been responsible for insuring the need for fiscal restraint in Government spending through his leadership on the Senate Budget Committee. His efforts on behalf of this unpopular cause were not diminished simply because there was the possibility of his losing friends over where cuts should be made.

Instead, he and Senator BELLMON stood together and fought off every major attempt to increase the budget beyond their committee's recommendations.

EDMUND MUSKIE has been known to have a stubborn Yankee temper, but in my opinion this will aid him in his current challenge as Secretary of State. There will be no question as to who will be in charge of foreign policy with ED MUSKIE in there fighting for what is best for this country.

I look forward to working with him in his new capacity, just as I have these past several years in the Senate and wish him the very best of luck in what promises to be one of the more difficult, yet exciting challenges of his distinguished life in the service of his country.

Mr. GLENN. Mr. President, I rise in enthusiastic support of ED MUSKIE's nomination to the Office of Secretary of State. In the 6 years I have been a Member of this body, it has been my privilege to know few men as thoughtful, competent, and unswervingly dedicated to the public good as the senior Senator from Maine.

That his nomination comes at a critical time in our national history is evident even to the most casual observer. As the events in Iran, Afghanistan, Latin America, and elsewhere make clear, we are truly at a watershed for our foreign policy and for our military alignments around the world.

We have witnessed a tremendous growth in Soviet military power and, in Afghanistan, a new Soviet willingness to use her own troops outside of eastern Europe. When coupled with earlier moves by Cuban surrogates across the African continent and in South Yemen on the Saudi border, and with the increased Soviet naval activity in the Indian Ocean, the free world has good cause for alarm. Nor can we afford to ignore the growing number of Soviet combat troops on disputed islands north of Japan, or the expansion of the Soviet/Vietnamese offensive against Cambodia or the utter refusal of the Soviets to accommodate us as regards her combat troops in Cuba.

We can no longer ignore this naked Soviet expansionism around the world. We must immediately set about defining our foreign policy goals — and must do so before we finally settle the matters of our defense budget and military force alignments. A sound defense budget and military configuration depends on a sound and well-thought out foreign policy. And such a foreign policy is now essential to our national well-being.

In this critical time, therefore, it is vital that our Nation have a Secretary of State who will be more than a caretaker. It is crucial that we have a Secretary of State who will take an active role in the architecture of our foreign policy. No one who knows ED MUSKIE well can think that he would be anything other than active — or that he would allow himself to be overshadowed by others who are not accountable to the Congress or to the people. Indeed, the President himself has indicated that ED MUSKIE will play the pivotal role. in future U.S. foreign policy. And there is evidence that the White House also is seeking to return to a more orderly and less crisis- dominated policymaking process than that which has been in place over the last 6 months.

Both the President and the country as a whole need ED MUSKIE at this critical, historical juncture. In my view, the Office of the Secretary of State can do with a man of no less stature than that possessed by ED MUSKIE. I heartily endorse his candidacy and urge his speedy confirmation.

Mr. DOLE. Mr. President, the Senator from Kansas rises to congratulate the Senator from Maine and commend the wisdom that selected this man who has been such a distinguished Member of this Chamber for many, many years. ED MUSKIE has compiled a record of public service, and service in the public interest that is equaled by few others.

His tenure as chairman of the Budget Committee is a fine example of his ability and dedication to principles that override political expediency. He is a man of unquestioned integrity. Although he and the Senator from Kansas sit an opposite sides of the aisle, and have been on opposite sides of many issues and political philosophies, never have I questioned his sincerity of purpose nor lost my respect for his talent and capability.

The State Department acquires in its new Secretary an acclaimed statesman and politician, who will give that Cabinet post new respect and forcefulness in the Halls of Congress and among the foreign ministries overseas, while his astute knowledge and experience will bring an informed and cohesive perspective to White House foreign policy decision making. In these troubled and dangerous times, when America appears weak, befuddled or beset on all sides on the world scene, it is the heartfelt and bipartisan wish of the Senator from Kansas, and I am sure by all Members of this body, that Secretary MUSKIE be eminently successful in his new role.

Mr. RIBICOFF. Mr. President, I vote proudly for my friend ED MUSKIE to be Secretary of State. ED MUSKIE is an especially capable man. Our Secretary of State carries a double burden: He must understand America, and he must pursue our Nation's interests in a difficult world. For a job of that sort you need a man like ED MUSKIE.

There is a sense of concern among the American people these days, and rightfully so. In addition to our immediate crisis in Iran we face Soviet expansionism, international economic instability, an alliance looking for leadership, and trouble spots around the globe. I can think of nothing better for the United States than the sight of Senator MUSKIE taking charge of our foreign policy. He knows this Nation well. He will defend us, and he will work to make the best of the enormous problems before him. And he will certainly command the respect and the cooperation of our allies. The American people are fortunate to have a familiar and reassuring voice responding to their concern.

ED MUSKIE and I became friends when we were both elected Governors of our States in 1954. When I came to the Senate in 1963 ED MUSKIE had already been here for 2 years, building the reputation that has made him a statesman and a respected colleague. We have worked together in this Senate. We have served on the Governmental Affairs Committee and have shaped a considerable bit of legislation together. I remember especially working with En MUSKIE on the Budget and Impoundment Act of 1974, a milestone law which was the start of one of his fine chapters in this House, the creation of budgetary discipline. We have worked on environmental issues, we have established new parts of the U.S. Government and reorganized others, trying to keep an organizational and management structure modern and capable of responding to the challenges of modern times. ED MUSKIE has been a voice of counsel on the Governmental Affairs Committee.

Mr. President, when a friend such as this leaves the Senate I feel a bit empty. For almost 18 years I have considered ED MUSKIE a source of strength. We all know that when you have ED MUSKIE on your side you stand tall and you have a tenacious fighter. Both as a friend and as one who has tended to be on the same side all those years, I will miss him. The Senate could use many of his caliber.

In voting to advise and consent to this nomination I know that ED MUSKIE will shoulder the heaviest burdens he has ever lifted. But he is the man for that job. And we as a Nation are the better for it. The United States and the free world have a moment of encouragement and optimism. Just when we needed him most, we have ED MUSKIE as Secretary of State. Our loss in the Senate is certainly a gain for the Nation, Mr. President, and I wish my friend the strength and the courage to meet this new challenge.

Mr. BELLMON. Mr. President, since coming to the Senate 111/2 years ago, I have voted on dozens of confirmations. Many have been worthy individuals, highly dedicated to serving their country. In my judgment, few have been called to a greater responsibility than Senator MUSKIE and none have been better endowed with the qualities required by the office they seek to fill.

Having served with Senator MUSKIE over the past 51/2 years as a member of the Senate Budget Committee, I have come to have a boundless respect for the intellect, the ability, the integrity and the basic sense of fair play possessed by the distinguished senior Senator from Maine. More than any person I have ever worked with, he has demonstrated the extraordinary quality needed to recognize a great need and the discipline necessary to avoid diversion and bring together the intellectual and political resources needed to translate ideas into results.

Mr. President, in a way I have mixed feelings as I comment upon the impending confirmation of Senator MUSKIE as Secretary of State. His departure from the Senate will be a severe loss to the legislative process. Having worked with Senator MUSKIE on the Budget Committee for several years, I am aware as anyone of the high caliber of his skills as a diplomat and a negotiator. I have also had ample opportunity to see him "lay down the law" of reality in making hard points related to the congressional budget process.

A characteristic of immense value which he will take to the State Department and the management of U.S. foreign policy is the ability to cut right to the heart of vitally important matters. I have often spoken critically of the foreign policy which has typified the Carter administration. It has been my belief that the administration has never developed a clear picture of U.S. defense and foreign policy goals which he could use as a guide in pursuing the day-to-day management of U.S. interests throughout the world. Lack of such a coherent view of foreign policy objectives has not permitted the administration to coordinate its budget priorities in the areas of defense and foreign affairs with the realities of the world today. The lack of such a prioritization has also prevented the Congress from being able to adequately assess the merits of administration foreign policy initiatives.

The lack of such an overall perspective of U.S. foreign policy goals, which our defense budget also implicitly supports, has hampered Senator MUSKIE's attempts to recommend proper defense and foreign affairs budget recommendations as often as it has hampered mine. Senator MUSKIE supported the Budget Committee's attempts this year to broaden its examination of U.S. defense and foreign policy in order to acquire a better assessment of our goals, both short-term and long-term, in the world.

It is my hope and expectation that Senator MUSKIE will carry this desire to identify and prioritize U.S. foreign policy goals with him to the State Department. I encourage him to do so. I know of no one who would be better able to force the foreign policy infrastructure in this country to reassess the basic tenets of U.S. goals in the world today. In my mind, this is an endeavor which must be carried out if there is to be any hope of dealing successfully with the rapidly affairs as he brought to the budget process.

Mr. President, America's relations with the world are becoming so complicated and the amount of money we are required to spend for our defense is becoming so large — we will spend a trillion dollars for national defense in the next 5 years — that we must have a clear understanding of what we are trying to accomplish. Otherwise, we will be the prisoner of world events and our defense posture, not directed at clearly defined, specific goals, will cause resources to be essentially squandered.

I hope Senator MUSKIE will play a large new role in forcing the administration to clearly define its defense and foreign affairs goals. It certainly needs his help and talents. Our allies are amazed and dismayed by the fluctuations in our international actions and stances. Our major adversaries increasingly see the United States as lacking will and commitment. I believe ED MUSKIE will perform admirably in reversing both these situations.

To sum up, Mr. President, for many years, the foreign policy of this country has been criticized as lacking direction and coherence. Based upon my acquaintance with the former chairman of the Budget Committee, Senator MUSKIE, I am confident that as soon as he has had time to focus thoroughly on the problems which confront this Nation in the international arena, he will bring the same coherence to this Nation's foreign affairs as he brought to the budget process.

The fact that he is coming to the office of Secretary of State from outside the diplomatic process will likely prove to be a huge asset to the country. Frequently, capable individuals newly confronted with great responsibilities are able to see clearly where those with long familiarity with the subject are handicapped by longstanding alliances and by their excess knowledge of minutiae.

Mr. President, I cast this vote for the confirmation of ED MUSKIE as Secretary of State with great pride and with complete assurance that he is the right man in the right place at the right time.

Mr. MATSUNAGA. Mr. President, it is on extremely rare occasions that our Nation's chief executive makes a move which is unanimously acceptable to the Congress. The nomination of ED MUSKIE to be Secretary of State appears to be one such move. The President could not have made a wiser choice in filling the position left vacant by the resignation of Cyrus Vance, whose shoes many felt would be most difficult to fill.

Our colleague and friend, ED MUSKIE, will take to his new post the wisdom of more than 20 years in public service and the stature of a man who is considered one of the few men truly qualified for the Nation's highest elective office. He will give to our foreign policy the sense of order, competence and calm deliberation which is expected not only by Americans but by our allies and friends throughout the world. As one who participated with ED MUSKIE in interparliamentary conferences, I know that he commands the respect and admiration not only of his American colleagues, but, more importantly, also of leaders of foreign countries.

I congratulate both President Carter and Senator MUSKIE on this nomination, which is to say that I will support it.

Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, I have always been fascinated by the Biblical reference in the passage of the life of a man as to there being "a time" — a time to reap and a time to sow — you remember the passage. That is how I feel about this appointment. This is the time for ED MUSKIE. It seems terribly appropriate for him to take on this task at this time in our history.

I must admit to a special kind of regard for this nominee. As a young lawyer in Cody, Wyo. — one always interested in politics and an avowed "Senate watcher" — I was often amazed at the prowess of ED MUSKIE. Although I certainly did not always concur in the issues he aligned himself with, I found myself admiring the zeal and enthusiasm with which he pursued his causes.

He is a scrapper. I guess I have always enjoyed that in others since I seem to enjoy it myself.

It would be difficult to account in an impassive way how I felt when — after being here for only several weeks — I was locked in combat with the senior Senator from Maine at a hearing on the Environmental and Public Works Committee. Not a very enviable position for a freshman Senator from Wyoming. Well, the going got heavy and the issue became secondary to the feelings of emotion and excitement I had in taking on this venerable "old pro" of this body.


But I hung in even though I recall well they shot my amendment out of the saddle by a vote of about 12 to 2. I scrapped for my position — just as ED MUSKIE has always learned to do for his. I remember leaving that meeting after my first baptism under fire at the committee level, and catching a ride on the elevator with ED. I will never forget his counsel and advice. He said, "SIMPSON, I think you are going to do all right around here because to be a good Senator you have to be about half an SOB — and I see you are."

Well, I loved that and I have not forgotten the delightful expression and twinkle of the eye that was winged along with the remark. And then ED took me aside as we headed back to the Capitol and he said, "Let me tell you about my first bit of combat in the U.S. Senate. It was a debate with Wayne Morris of Oregon and boy do not think I have ever forgotten that day—." He then went on to relate a fascinating and very human narration of that first encounter of his. Little things indeed.

But those are the type of things that one remembers when you begin to sort out this extraordinary job of serving as a U.S. Senator. Since that time I have always known that when I would speak, ED would listen. And I certainly always tried to do that diligently with him. I also recall a delightful and impromptu dinner with him in the Senate dining room during a late session — a time in which he shared much of himself. He is a remarkable man. He will do a remarkable job. He is fair, loving and tough. That is a combination we need a good deal more of in this town. I am most pleased and enthused about his appointment. The young people today have a phrase that fits this situation pretty well. In his dealings with the heads of State, and the princes and the potentates and with the Congress, the laymen and the citizens of this country, they will know — in the vernacular of the young people of the day — "where he is coming from". His message will be clear and forceful — no mincing or manipulation. He is the right guy at the right time at the right place. Jane, his helpmate of many years will be there at his side. They both require our prayers and our support. They have mine. May God bless him in his efforts.

Mr. CANNON. Mr. President, it is with great pleasure that I join my colleagues in voting approval of ED MUSKIE's nomination as Secretary of State. ED and I came to the Senate together in 1958, so I have had more time than many Senators to work with him and observe his performance.

It is a performance that did this institution proud, Mr. President, and that is why I am certain every American will be proud of his performance as Secretary of State. Although the overwhelming reaction to this appointment has been favorable, there have been some who question his lack of experience in foreign affairs. Let me say to those critics that ED MUSKIE will master his new job and will make up with diligence and intelligence whatever he lacks in experience.

The fields of environmental protection and congressional budget control were new when ED MUSKIE entered them, but he proved more than a match for them. Indeed, his work on behalf of environmental protection assures him a place in this Nation's history. And if the gruelling job of bringing budget restraint to the U.S. Senate does not win him public accolades, it does give him a position of everlasting respect in this body.

What the United States needs now in foreign policy ED MUSKIE has in abundance. That is a clear sense of this Nation's goals and aspirations and a dogged determination to have those needs met. As I said when the nomination was announced, ED is an able advocate and a tough adversary. This country could have no stronger ally in its corner than ED MUSKIE when it comes to dealing with the various hostile forces at large in the world today. This is a good appointment and the American people will come to appreciate that fact over the weeks and months to come.

Mr. PELL. Mr. President, I have long admired and had much affection for ED MUSKIE, and I am delighted to join with my colleagues today in support of his confirmation as the 56th Secretary of State.

Senator MUSKIE has the wisdom, experience, and national outlook necessary to be the senior officer in the Cabinet. The fact that Senator MUSKIE is so highly regarded by his Senate colleagues and has been such a successful legislator will make him a valued asset to the President.

Senator MUSKIE and I have worked together for many years as members of the Foreign Relations Committee, and he was one of my predecessors as chairman of the Arms Control Subcommittee. I have always had the greatest respect for Senator MUSKIE's ability, integrity, and devotion to furthering our country's interests around the world. From a purely personal point of view, I am pleased that Senator MUSKIE, with whom I have shared a deep interest in environmental protection, will be our next Secretary of State, because I am convinced that the protection and enhancement of the world's environment will be one of the foremost international issues of the future, and Senator MUSKIE has the experience and commitment to exercise great leadership in that area. I believe, too, he will have a steady and peaceful hand on the helm of our ship of state.

I was one of many Members of this body who deeply regretted Cyrus Vance's decision to leave the administration. I fully understand and appreciate the position of principle that impelled Secretary Vance to resign. And, I can think of no finer successor than Senator ED MUSKIE. All of us will miss him in this Chamber, but my best wishes go with him as he takes up his new and awesome responsibilities.

Mr. CULVER. Mr. President, for almost every Senator this is one of the most difficult votes cast during his or her service here. The decision is an easy one on the merits, but a particularly painful one by the knowledge that we lose a colleague of authentic stature both as a legislator and as a moral force.

As we recall our years here — whether they go back as far as 1959 when ED MUSKIE took his seat or as recently as this Congress — his influence and personal force have been unmistakable.

Not only has he always looked as if he belonged here; he also acted for more than 21 years so as to bring honor to the institution and meaning to our laws. He was never a narrow specialist or single-issue man. He never segmented in his mind the needs of our Nation at home or abroad. He managed wisely to align a disciplined budgetary philosophy with the just claims of the ordinary citizen. He was always a man who understood the raw nerves of politics without recoiling into cynicism or fatalism. And as his political roles widened and his interests expanded, he always remained a man from Maine, never losing touch with his origins or his fellow citizens. Above all, ED MUSKIE possesses perspective and a capacity to distinguish the truly important from the merely transient issues and controversies which we encounter in political life.

When we think of ED MUSKIE's career here, we remember the extraordinary scope of his achievements — architect and builder of a new budgetary process, a champion of a decent natural environment, a path breaker in modern urban legislation, a detective of waste in Government, a harmonizer of the countless demands made on the budgetary and human resources of our Government. And no Senator is free of envy of his gifts as a political craftsman — in reshaping the political map of Maine as Governor and Senator.

In the end, however, we see most vividly in him a rare strength and wholeness of character. He has the best qualities of a teacher and public philosopher — reason, eloquence, seasoned judgment and integrity. Those qualities are among those most needed in a Secretary of State. In casting a vote for his confirmation, we are not only expressing confidence in and admiration for ED MUSKIE, but also seeking to restate the primacy of his new position in the conduct of our foreign affairs. Everything in his past suggests that he will remain a working partner of both the President and the Congress.

Mr. ROBERT C. BYRD. Mr. President, I yield the floor to Senator MUSKIE.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Maine is recognized.

Mr. MUSKIE. Mr. President, I must say to my colleagues that this is the moment I have dreaded for 10 days — not the vote, but the fact that this will mean saying goodby to the Senate.

I moved to this desk and this seat because this is the desk and seat I have occupied for 20 years. I have occupied it because I have found that the acoustics from this spot are better than any other spot in the Senate and, having a weak voice [laughter], I thought it was important to enhance it in every way that I could.


I should like to say thank you to Senator CHURCH, Senator JAVITS, and my colleagues on the Committee on Foreign Relations for the hospitable way in which the hearing was conducted this morning. They tested me just enough not to reveal my shortcomings, yet gave me an opportunity to express some views that I have had over the years about foreign policy and the direction in which we ought to move. But what I liked most about the hearings and about what you have had to say today and over the 10 days since the President asked me to take this assignment is the confidence you have expressed in my ability to handle this new responsibility, whether or not you had doubts about the views which I hold.

I understand what Senator HELMS was saying with his vote this morning and with his remarks this afternoon. I always honor an act of conscience. I think that is what Senator HELMS was doing.

I want to say to you, those of you who are more recently my colleagues and those of you who have been my colleagues for 22 years, that I cannot think of any motivation that could more surely generate a drive toward excellence on my part in whatever responsibility I have than the awareness that I must meet your test of my final performance. This is what has moved me in the Senate for 22 years.

I sought, also, of course, principally to meet the approval of my constituents. But this body is the kind of body in which, if one wishes to leave his mark, he must gain the respect and the approval of 99 colleagues, who set a high test.

When I first came to the Senate, I was asked what kind of role I hoped to play. I said:

Well, it seems to me there are three ways to gain visibility in the Senate. One is to be a leader, and that takes some time. The second is to reach for headlines, and that won’t last. The third is to do one's homework to the point that the Senate comes to rely upon one for the special knowledge and perspectives and insights that one develops.

So I chose the third route. Whether or not I have succeeded in meeting my test, you and history will have to record, if history is interested at all, and no one can be sure of that.

I look around and see all of those of you have been associated with my principal endeavors:

Senator RANDOLPH, who has been chairman of the Committee on Environment and Public Works for most of the years that I have served on it. I have been ranking Democrat to him for all those years;

Senator RIBICOFF, chairman of the Committee on Government Operations, on which I served for so many years;

My good friend, HENRY BELLMON, who, with me, undertook the task of trying to make the budget process work. I cannot find the words to say "thank you" to him for his contribution, which is lasting and which is continuing under the leadership of my successor, Senator HOLLINGS.

I am drifting into a risk, now. I cannot possibly name all of you who have contributed to my education as a Senator and to whatever I have succeeded in doing. I appreciate the generous comments of my colleague from Maine, Senator COHEN. It is typical of him. He has always been gracious across party lines and I have always appreciated it. I dislike leaving that relationship just when it was beginning to develop and bloom.

There is the majority leader, who has said to you, and he has said to me privately, that he has come to depend on me, and he has said it in ways that I know he means it. I have developed the strongest feelings of friendship and affection for him and respect for his performance as majority leader, and I shall miss that.

HOWARD BAKER — I think I was here when he first came here as Senator. I was at that point more senior, although I think he became a senior Senator before I did, one of the anomalies of this body. But in any case, I enjoyed our association so much, especially because of the graciousness and the ability and the understanding which was extended to me from that side of the aisle on many things about which we differed from time to time.

I think we had more in common with each other than we disagreed about.

I do not want to extend this. I do not like to say "goodbye," but I do. But this is not the last you will hear from me and I am sure it will not be the last I hear from you, not unless the Senate changes its stripes about foreign policy and about your prerogatives with respect to the responsibility of shaping it.

So, I expect to hear from you. But what I hope to see, and I am certain I will, is an environment much like that which we have known here. You will hear my views, I will hear yours, and out of the exchange, hopefully, we can forge a stronger, more positive relationship in the field of foreign policy between this institution and the administration, and that will be a healthier thing for our country.

I do not need to always prevail with my views, even though from time to time I sound as though I must. I only sound that way. It is an intimidating quality I have nurtured and developed over many, many years, and I do not intend to surrender it, and insist upon it. But, in like manner, you will express your views to me.

So I look forward to a continuation of this relationship on a more adversary basis, perhaps, but on the same basis of mutual affection and respect that I feel this afternoon.

Thank you all so much for what you have contributed to my life.

[Applause, Senators rising.]

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is, Will the Senate advise and consent to the nomination of EDMUND S. MUSKIE, of Maine, to be Secretary of State? On this question the yeas and nays have been ordered, and the clerk will call the roll.

The legislative clerk called the roll.

Mr. MUSKIE (when his name was called) . Present.

The result was announced — yeas, 94, nays 2.

[Roll call vote tally omitted]