Aesthetics and Cognitive Science

CSTD 361a (PC)

College Seminar, Fall 2003

Timothy Dwight College, Yale University

Monday, 3:30 – 5:20, Room FENCE 02B

Mona%20Lisa's%20Smile

Margaret Livingstone, http://neuro.med.harvard.edu/site/faculty/livingstone.html

 

Professor William P. Seeley

Office Hours TBA

 

 

 

Last Updated:  09/07/04

 

1.           Course Description and Texts

2.           Syllabus and Lecture Overview

3.           Readings and Reserve List

4.           Supplemental Bibliography & Links

 

5.           Bill Seeley's webpage

 

 

 

1.    Course Description and Texts:

 

Course Description:

 

The goal of "Aesthetics and Cognitive Science" is to examine philosophical issues surrounding attempts to naturalize aesthetic experience, i.e. attempts to explain aesthetic experiences by reference to the natural psychological processes subserving perception and cognition.  The aim of the course is to introduce students to the interdisciplinary field of cognitive science and investigate the role psychology and cognitive neuroscience can play in explanations of art and aesthetic experiences.  The first part of the course introduces key issues in aesthetics?  The second part of the course examines the role the perceptual relationship between viewers and works of visual art plays in the aesthetic experiences we associate with art in general.  This section investigates the general methods underlying the interdisciplinary study of aesthetics and cognitive science and the application of current theories of perception to an understanding of art and aesthetic experiences.

 

 

Course Goals:

 

·         Provide a general understanding of the objectives and interdisciplinary methods of the study of cognitive science

      and aesthetics.

·         Provide a background in philosophical aesthetics to enable students to evaluate attempts to naturalize aesthetics.

·         Evaluate how aesthetic experiences are differentiated from ordinary perceptual experiences.

 

 

Requirements:

 

Students will be required to complete two writing assignments:  a short (6 - 8 page) paper on an assigned topic due at the midterm; and a (12 - 14 page) final paper on a topic of their own choice due at the end of the reading period.  Students must see me to discuss the topic of their term papers no later than Session 10.

 

 

Texts:     

 

·         All required texts are provided in a course packet available through YaleRIS (http://www.yale.edu/ris/sub_store_bookstore.html).

·         Additional supplemental texts are on reserve at Cross Campus Library.

·         The following books provide useful background in aesthetics, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience.  They are available at the Yale Bookstore:

 

The Philosophy of Art, Noλl Carroll, Routledge, New York, 1999.

Inner Vision, Semir Zeki, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.

Image and Brain, Stephen M. Kosslyn, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1994.

Visual Agnosia, Martha Farah, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Vision, Martha J. Farah, Blackwell Publishers, Malden, MA, 2000.

Visual Intelligence:  How We Create What We See, Donald D. Hoffman, W. W. Norton and Company, New York, 1998.

Creating Mind, John E. Dowling, W. W. Norton and Company, New York, 1998.

Vision and Design, Roger Fry, Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, NY, 1981.

Beyond Aesthetics, Noλl Carroll, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2001.

 

 

This course does not presuppose any specialized knowledge of cognitive science or philosophy.  The majority of the readings are drawn from philosophical aesthetics and scientific review articles.  Students will not be expected to be able to evaluate the experiments or data presented in these papers.  We will discuss how to interpret the salient results in class.  Our interest is in the value of the arguments provided in the texts for each of the theories under consideration.

 

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2.    Syllabus and Lecture Overview:

 

A.     Aesthetics and The Constructivist Hypothesis:

 

Session 1.  Introductory Lecture:

 

The goal of this session is to introduce students to the key concepts and basic model for the interdisciplinary study of cognitive science and aesthetics:

 

a)    the philosophical definition of aesthetics:  the study of sensory cognition and the phenomenal character of the experiences associated with artworks.

b)    the definition of an interpretation:  the application of background art historical and cultural knowledge in the identification of the content of a work of art.

c)    a basic philosophical conflict between the role of interpretation and the philosophical definition of aesthetics:  it has been argued that what differentiates aesthetic from ordinary perceptual experiences is not their phenomenal content, but rather how viewers interpret them relative to background art historical and cultural knowledge, e.g. conceptual art like the "readymades" of Marcel Duchamp.

d)    the definition of a constructivist theory of vision and its implications for the field of aesthetics:

a.    expectations and background knowledge concerning the structure and function of scenes and objects play an integral role in the construction of visual appearances;

b.    therefore the conceptual contributions of background art historical and cultural knowledge cannot be so easily separated from the phenomenal content of aesthetic experiences

e)    a solution suggested by a constructivist theory of vision to the conflict between the idea of an interpretation and the philosophical definition of aesthetics:  background art historical and cultural knowledge plays a role in the construction of the phenomenal content of aesthetic experiences.

 

 

Session 2.  Some Background in Aesthetics:  Aesthetic Experience and Interpretation:

 

The goal of this session is to examine in detail:  a) the central notion of a theory of aesthetics that what individuates artworks from ordinary objects is the unique phenomenal character of the aesthetic experiences, and b) a standard objection to theories of aesthetics which asserts that theories of aesthetics cannot adequately account for the role of interpretation in aesthetic experiences.

 

 

Session 3.  The Fry-Ruskin Thesis:

 

The Fry-Ruskin Thesis consists of two claims: a) visual artists derive the content of their works from a careful examination of the underlying structure of natural appearances, and b) viewers reconstruct the representational content of these works from visual cues derived from these examinations.  The goal of this session is to evaluate the Fry-Ruskin Thesis as a theory of aesthetics in the context of E. H. Gombrich's criticism that it rests upon the impossible notion of an "innocent," or unbiased, eye.

 

 

Session 4.  The Constructivist Hypothesis:

 

The goal of this session is to:  a) introduce the idea that the structure of appearances is actively constructed by the visual system, b) introduce a general constructivist model for the study of cognitive science and aesthetics which suggests that artists' close examination of the structure of appearances is in fact a close examination of the way the visual system constructs visual representations, and c) discuss a solution this strategy suggests for the problem of interpretation.

 

 

 

B.     Bottom Up Approaches: 

 

Bottom-up approaches to aesthetics and cognitive science fix on the neurophysiological structure of early visual processes.  The focus of these theories is on the way artists' exploit shallow visual effects that are the products of these processes.

 

Session 5.  A Bottom-Up Approach:  The Neurophysiology of Aesthetic Experience:

 

The goal of this session is to:  a) introduce Semir Zeki's claim that artists are intuitive neurophysiologists whose works reveal an intuitive understanding of the role of the early visual brain in the construction of the structure of appearances, and b) discuss Zeki's thesis within the context of Fry and Ruskin's conception of the practice of painting as a rigorous examination of the structure of appearances.

 

 

Session 6.  Calder's Mobiles and the Mona Lisa:

 

The goal of this session is to evaluate two case studies which exemplify the bottom-up approach:  a) Semir Zeki's claim that Alexander Calder's sculpture consciously exploits the receptive field properties of motion sensitive neurons, and b) Margaret Livingstone's claim that Mona Lisa's elusive smile can be explained by functional disparities between foveal and peripheral vision.

 

 

Session 7.  Discussion of Zeki's Thesis:

 

Zeki's theory does not address the issue of interpretation.  The goal of this discussion is to evaluate two potential difficulties for Zeki's theory:  a) Jennifer McMahon's claim that the theory is limited by the fact that it can only explain the perceptual content of highly abstract works which exploit formal visual elements in relative isolation, e.g. Calder's use of motion, and b) the claim discussed in Sessions 2 and 3 that the value of the formal structure of an artwork is derived from an interpretation.

 

 

 

C.     Top-Down Approaches:

 

Constructivist theories of vision argue that form perception involves top down processes which match sensory data to perceptual schema containing prior knowledge about the shapes and relative sizes of particular types of objects.  Top-down approaches focus on the way artists exploit these processes in the construction of their works. 

 

Session 8.  A Top-Down Approach:  A Theory of Perceptual Beauty:

 

The goal of this session is to examine McMahon's claim that the phenomenal character of the experience of beautiful artworks, objects, and natural scenes involves an intuitive awareness of the role of perceptual schema in the top-down processes subserving form perception.

 

 

Session 9.  A Top Down Approach:  Form Perception:

 

The goal of this session is to examine and evaluate neuropsychological evidence from the study of apperceptive and associative visual object agnosia that supports McMahon's claim that viewers can be intuitively aware of key aspects of the perceptual form of a scene or object without being able to appropriately identify them.

 

 

Session 10.  Discussion:  McMahon's Theory of Beauty:

 

The goal of this session is to a) discuss McMahon's theory in the context of the Fry-Ruskin Thesis, b) evaluate her application of the theory to Cubism, and c) evaluate an objection that whereas the theory can help explain the phenomenal content traditionally associated with aesthetic experience, it cannot account for the role of interpretation in the experiences associated with art.

 

 


D.     Art and the Imagination:

 

Stephen Kosslyn argues that visual mental imagery, the act of visualizing something in your imagination, is an internal, non-perceptual visual experience caused either by recollecting or conceptualizing something.  Gregory Currie suggests a role for the imagination in the production of aesthetic experiences which exploits the processes responsible for visual mental imagery.

 

Session 11.  Art and the Imagination:

 

The goal of this session is to a) introduce Gregory Currie's general model for the role of the imagination in the production of aesthetic experiences, b) introduce Currie's claim that viewing a work of visual art involves a "simulated" act of seeing, and c) discuss the relationship between this model and the constructivist hypothesis.

 

 

Session 12.  What is Mental Imagery?:

 

Currie appeals to Stephen Kosslyn's model of visual mental imagery to explain the idea of a "simulated act of seeing."  The goal of this session is to discuss a) the top down role of memory and background knowledge in Stephen Kosslyn's model for mental imagery, b) behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological evidence that supports the claim that mental imagery is in fact a type of visual experience, and c) the resolution that this model suggests to the problem of interpretation.

 

 

Session 13.  Discussion:  Art, Imagination, Mental Imagery, and the Problem of Interpretation:

 

The goal of this session is to a) discuss the role of mental imagery in Currie's theory of art and the imagination, and b) evaluate the theory as a resolution to the problem of interpretation that provides complimentary roles for the phenomenal content of aesthetic experience and background art historical and cultural knowledge.

 

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3.    Readings and Reserve List

 

A.     Readings

 

Session 1:  Introduction

 

 

Session 2:  Aesthetic Experience and the Problem of Interpretation

 

-       Noλl Carroll (1986) "Art and Interaction," pp. 57 – 68.

-       Arthur Danto (2000)  "Art and Meaning," pp. xvii – xxx.

-       Arthur Danto (2000)  "The Work of Art and the Historical Future," pp. 441 – 447.

 

 

Session 3:  The Fry-Ruskin Thesis

 

-       E. M. Gombrich (2000)  "The Analysis of Vision in Art," pp. 291 – 314.

-       John Ruskin (1857)  "from The Elements of Drawing," pp. 59 – 61.

-       Roger Fry (1909)  "An Essay in Aesthetics," pp. 12 – 19.

-       Roger Fry (1919)  "The Artist's Vision," pp. 33 – 38.

 

 

Session 4:  The Constructivist Hypothesis         

 


-       Diana Raffman (1993) Language Music, pp. 1 – 15.

-       Semir Zeki (1999) Inner Vision, pp. 1 – 21.

-       Stephen E. Palmer (1999) "Classical Theories of Vision," pp. 47 – 59.

 

 

Session 5:  A Bottom-Up Approach:  The Neurophysiology of Aesthetic Experience:

 

-       Semir Zeki (1999) "Art and the Brain," pp. 76 – 96.

 

 

Session 6:  Calder's Mobiles and the Mona Lisa:

 

-       V. S. Ramachandran and R. L. Gregory (1978) "Does Color Provide an Input to Human Motion Perception?" 55 – 56.

-       Margaret S. Livingstone (2000) "Is It Warm?  Is It Real?  Or Just Low Spatial Frequency?" p. 1299.

-       Semir Zeki (1994) "The neurology of kinetic art," pp. 607 – 636.

 

 

Session 7:  Discussion of Zeki's Thesis:

 

-       Jennifer McMahon (2000)  "Commentary on Semir Zeki's Inner Vision," Leonardo Online Reviews, http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-journals/Leonardo/reviews/a-raw.html.

 

 

Session 8:  A Top-Down Approach:  A Theory of Perceptual Beauty:

 

-       Jennifer Anne McMahon (2001) "Beauty," pp. 227 – 238.

-       Jennifer Anne McMahon (1999) "Towards a Unified Theory of Beauty (excerpt)," pp. 7 – 19.

 

 

Session 9:  A Top Down Approach:  Form Perception:

 

-       Martha Farah (1992)  "Perceptual Classification Deficit," Visual Agnosia, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 30 – 33.

-       Jenni A. Ogden (1996)  "Vision Without Knowledge:  Visual Object Agnosia and Prosopagnosia," Fractured Minds, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 125 – 141.

-       Alan J. Parkin (1996)  "Visual Agnosia," Explorations in Cognitive Neuropsychology, Psychology Press, New York, pp. 38 – 57.

 

 

Session 10:  Discussion:  McMahon's Theory of Beauty:

 

-       Patrick Cavanaugh (1999)  "Pictorial Art and Vision," pp. 648 – 651.          

 

 

Session 11:  An Integrated Approach:  Art and the Imagination:

 

-       Kendall Walton (1992)  "Mimesis as Make-believe," pp. 22 – 27.

-       Gregory Currie (1991)  "Book Review:  Mimesis as Make-Believe," pp. 367 – 370.

-       Gregory Currie (1995)  "Visual Imagery as the Simulation of Vision," pp. 25 – 44.

 

 

Session 12:  What is Mental Imagery?:

 

-       Stephen Kosslyn (1996) "Resolving the Imagery Debates," pp. 2 – 21.

-       S. M. Kosslyn et al (1999)  "The Role of Area 17 in Visual Imagery:  Convergent Evidence from PET and rTMS," pp. 167-170.

-       William Thompson and Stephen Kosslyn (2000) "Neural systems activated during visual mental imagery:  a review and meta-analysis," pp. 535 – 542.

 

 

Session 13:  Discussion:  Art, Imagination, Mental Imagery, and the Problem of Interpretation:

 

-       Noλl Carroll (1986)  "Beauty and the Genealogy of Art Theory," pp. 307 – 334.

 

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B.     Course Packet List

 

1.    Carroll, Noλl (1986)  "Art and Interaction," The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism," XLV, No. 1, Fall, pp. 57 – 68. 

      [PACKET 1 – 13]

2.    Danto, Arthur (2000a)  "The Work of Art and the Historical Future," The Madonna of the Future, University of California Press, pp. 441 – 447.           

      [PACKET 14 -22]

3.    Danto, Arthur (2000b)  "Art and Meaning," Madonna of the Future, University of California Press, pp. xvii – xxx.       

      [PACKET 23 – 31]

4.    Gombrich, E. H. (1960)  "The Analysis of Vision in Art," Art and Illusion, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2000, pp. 291 – 314.  

      [PACKET 32 – 58]

5.    Ruskin, John (1857)  "Letter I, Exercise i, paragraphs 5 – 6," The Elements of Drawing, Dover Publications Inc, New York, 1971, pp. 27 - 29.         

      [PACKET 59 – 61]

6.    Fry, Roger (1909)  "An Essay in Aesthetics," Vision and Design, Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, NY, 1981, pp. 12 – 19.      

      [PACKET 62 – 66]

7.    Fry, Roger (1919)  "The Artist's Vision," Vision and Design, Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, NY, 1981, pp. 33 – 38.    

      [PACKET 67 – 71]

8.    McPherson, Fiona (2002)  "The scope and place of philosophy in perception," www.girton.cam.ac.uk/users/fem30/pp/intro.html

      [PACKET 72]

9.    Raffman, Diana (1993)  Language Music, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 1 – 15.

      [PACKET 73 – 82]

10.  Zeki, Semir (1999)  Inner Vision, Oxford University Press, pp. 1 – 21.        

      [PACKET 83 – 94]

11.  Palmer, Stephen E. (1999)  "Classical Theories of Vision," Vision Science:  Photons to Phenomenology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 47 – 59. 

      [PACKET 95 – 109]

12.  Zeki, Semir (1999)  "Art and the Brain," Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 6, June/July, pp. 76 – 96.          

      [PACKET 110 – 131]

13.  Zeki, Semir (1994)  "The neurology of kinetic art," Brain, 117, pp. 607 – 636.         

      [PACKET 132 – 161]

14.  Ramachandran, V. S. and R. L. Gregory (1978)  "Does Color Provide an Input to Human Motion Perception?" Nature, Volume 275, September 7, pp. 55 – 56.         

      [PACKET 162 – 165]

15.  Livingstone, Margaret S. (2000)  "Is It Warm?  Is It Real?  Or Just Low Spatial Frequency?" Science, 290, November 17, p. 1299.  

      [PACKET 166]

16.  McMahon, Jennifer Anne (2000)  "Commentary on Semir Zeki's Inner Vision," Leonardo Online Reviews, http://mitpress.mit.edu/ejournals/Leonardo/ reviews/sep2000/bk_INNVIS_mcmahon.html

      [PACKET 167 – 172]

17.  McMahon, Jennifer Anne (2001)  "Beauty," in eds. Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes, The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge, New York, pp. 227 – 238.

      [PACKET 173 – 186]

18.  McMahon, Jennifer Anne (1999)  "Towards a Unified Theory of Beauty (excerpt)" Literature and Aesthetics, 9, pp. 7 – 19.                   

      [PACKET 187 – 205]

19.  Farah, Martha (1992)  "Perceptual Classification Deficit," Visual Agnosia, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 30 – 33.                

      [PACKET 206 – 209]

20.  Ogden, Jenni A. (1996)  "Vision Without Knowledge:  Visual Object Agnosia and Prosopagnosia," Fractured Minds, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 125 – 141.

      [PACKET 210 – 228]

21.  Parkin, Alan J. (1996)  "Visual Agnosia," Explorations in Cognitive Neuropsychology, Psychology Press, New York, pp. 38 – 57.           

      [PACKET 229 – 247]

22.  Cavanaugh, Patrick (1999)  "Pictorial Art and Vision," MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, eds. Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA,  pp. 648 –  651, http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Articles/cavanaugh1.html.    

      [PACKET 248 – 251]

23.  Walton, Kendall (1992)  "Mimesis as Make-believe," Art Issues 21, pp. 22 – 27.     

      [PACKET 252 – 258]

24.  Currie, Gregory (1991)  "Book Review:  Mimesis as Make-Believe," Journal of Philosophy, Volume 90, July, pp. 367 –  370.

      [PACKET 259 – 263]

25.  Currie, Gregory (1995)  "Visual Imagery as the Simulation of Vision," Mind and Language, Volume 10, Number 1/2, March/June, pp. 25 – 44.

      [PACKET 264 – 275]

26.  Kosslyn, Stephen M. (1996)  "Resolving the Imagery Debates," Imagery and the Brain, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 2 – 21.

      [PACKET 276 – 298]

27.  Kosslyn, S. M., A. Pascual-Leone, O. Felician, S. Camposano, J. P. Keenan, W. L. Thompson, G. Ganis, K. E. Sukel, N. M. Alpert (1999)  "The Role of Area 17 in Visual Imagery: Convergent Evidence from PET and rTMS," Science, Volume 284, Number 5411, April, pp. 167-170.

      [PACKET 299 – 302]

28.  Thompson, William L. and Stephen M. Kosslyn (2000)  "Neural systems activated during visual mental imagery:  a review and meta-analysis," in eds. Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta, Brain

      Mapping:  The Systems, Academic Press, New York, 2000, pp. 535 –  542.          

      [PACKET 303 – 312]

29.  Greenberg, Clement (1960)  "Modernist Painting," Clement Greenberg:  The Collected Essays and Criticism, Volume 4, ed, John O'Brian, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1995, pp. 85 – 93.

      [PACKET 313 – 319]

30.  Carroll, Noλl (1991)  "Beauty and the Genealogy of Art Theory," The Philosophical Forum, Volume XXII, No. 4, Summer, pp. 307 – 334.

      [PACKET 320 – 335]

 

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C.     Reserve List

 

Books:

 

·         Course Packet:  CSTD361a

·         Ashcraft, Mark H., Fundamentals of Cognition, Prentice Hall, New York, 1998.

·         Ashcraft, Mark H., Human Memory and Cognition, Scott, Foresman, Glennview, Ill, 1989.

·         Currie, Gregory and Ian Ravenscroft,  Recreative Minds, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002.

·         Dickie, George, Richard Sclafini, and Ronald Roblin, Aesthetics, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1989.

·         Dowling, John E., Neurons and Networks, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 2001.

·         Farah, Martha Visual Agnosia, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.

·         Farah, Martha, The Cognitive Neuroscience of Vision, Blackwell Publishers, Malden, MA, 2000.

·         Fry, Roger (1920) Vision and Design, Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, NY, 1981.

·         Gombrich, E. H., Art and Illusion, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2000.

·         Gregory, The Artful Eye, edited by Richard Gregory, John Harriss, Priscilla Heard, and David Rose, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.

·         Guyer, Paul, "The dialectic of disinterestedness:  I. Eighteenth –century aesthetics," Kant and the Experience of Freedom, Chapter 2, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996.

·         Hoffman, David, Visual Intelligence, W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., New York, 1998.

·         Kosslyn, Stephen M. and Richard A. Anderson, Frontiers in Cognitive Neuroscience, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.

·         Kosslyn, Stephen M., Image and the Brain, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1994.

-       Chapter 2, "Carving a System at its Joints"

-       Chapter 3, "High Level Vision"

·         Livingstone, Margaret S., Vision and Art:  The Biology of Seeing

·         Palmer, Semir, Vision Science: from Photons to Phenomenology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999.

·         Ruskin, John, The Elements of Drawing, Dover Publications Inc, New York, 1971.

·         Toga, Arthur W.  and John C. Mazziotta, Brain Mapping:  The Systems, Academic Press, New York, 2000.

·         Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, editors, MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999.          

·         Zeki, Semir, Inner Vision, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.

 

 

 

Articles:

 

·         "Symposium on the Historicity of the Eye," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Volume 59, Number 1, Winter, 2001, pp. 1 – 44.

o   Danto, Arthur, "Seeing and Showing," pp. 1 – 9.

o   Carroll, Noλl, "Modernity and the Plasticity of Perception," pp. 11 – 18.

o   Rollins, Mark, "The Invisible Content of Art," pp. 19 – 27.

o   Davis, Whitney, When Pictures Are Present," pp. 29 – 38.

o   Danto, Arthur, "The Pigeon within Us All:  A Reply to Three Critics," pp. 39 – 44.

·         Akins, Kathleen (1996)  "Of Sensory Systems and the Aboutness of mental States," Journal of Philosophy, Volume 93, Number 7, July, pp. 337 – 372.

·         Bell, Clive (1914)  "The Aesthetic Hypothesis," Art, Perigree Books, New York, 1981, reprinted in eds. George Dickie, Richard Sclafini, and Ronald Roblin (1989), Aesthetics, Second Edition, St. Martin's Press, New York. 

·         Currie, Gregory (1995)  "Imagination and Simulation:  Aesthetics Meets Cognitive Science," in ed. Martin Davies and Tony Stone, Mental Simulation, Blackwell Publishers, Malden, MA, 1995, pp. 151 - 169. 

·         Currie, Gregory and Ian Ravenscroft (2002)  "Chapter 3, The Simulation Programme," Recreative Minds, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 71 – 88.

·         Currie, Gregory and Ian Ravenscroft (2002)  "Chapter 4, Imagery:  Capacities and Mechanisms," Recreative Minds, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 71 – 88.

·         Currie, Gregorie (2001)  "Imagination and make-Believe," in eds. Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes, The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge, New York, pp. 2531 – 262.

·         Goldman, Alan (2001) "The Aesthetic," in eds. Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes, The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge, New York, pp. 181 – 192 (REFERENCE).

·         Kitcher, Phillip (1984)  "1953 and All That:  A Tale of Two Sciences," Philosophical Review, Volume 93, pp. 335 – 373.

·         Kosslyn, Stephen M. Carol S. Rabin (1999)  "Imagery," MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, eds. Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 387 - 389.

·         Marr, David and H. K. Nishihara (1978)  "Visual Processing:  Artificial intelligence and the sensorium of sight," Technology Review, 81, pp. 2 – 23.

·         McMahon, Jennifer Anne (2000)  "Perceptual Beauty as the Basis for Genuine Judgments of Beauty," Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 7, No. 8/9, August/September, pp. 29 – 35.

·         Milner, A. David and Melvin A. Goodale (1998) "The Visual Brain in Action," Psyche: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Consciousness, http://psyche.cs.monash.edu/au/v4/psyche-4-12-milner.html

·         Mishkin, M., L. G. Ungerleider, and K. A. Macko (1983) "Object Vision and Spatial Vision:  Two Cortical Pathways," Trends in Neurosciences, 6, pp. 414 – 417.

·         Pelli, D. G. (1999)  "Close Encounters – An Artist Shows that Size Effects Shape," Science, V. 285, pp. 844 – 846.

·         Ramachandran, V. S and William Hirstein (2000)  "The Science of Art:  A neurological theory of aesthetic experience," Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 6, No. 6/7, June/July, pp. 15 – 51.

·         Richard Latto (1995)  "The Brain of the Beholder," The Artful Eye, eds. Richard Gregory, John Harriss, Priscilla Heard, and David Rose, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 66 – 94.

·         Ruskin, John (1857)  "Letter I, Exercise i, paragraphs 5 – 6," The Elements of Drawing, Dover Publications Inc, New York, 1971, pp. 27 – 31 and 48 – 56.

·         Thompson, William L. and Stephen M. Kosslyn (2000)  "Neural systems activated during visual mental imagery:  a review and meta-analysis," in eds. Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta, Brain Mapping:  The Systems, Academic Press, New York, 2000, pp. 535 –  560.

 

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4.    Supplemental Bibliography and Links

 

A.     Links

 

·         ASA:  Aesthetics On-Line:      

http://aesthetics-online.org

 

·         Mark Harden's Artchive:          

http://www.artchive.com/ftp_site_reg.htm

 

·         MoMA Collection:         

http://moma.org/collection/index.html

 

·         Art, The Mind, and The Brain, Gregory Currie:        

http://www.uqtr.ca/AE/vol_1/currie.html

 

·         Cognitive Science, Humanities, and the Arts:         

http://www.hfac.uh.edu/cogsci/index.html

 

·         Neuroscience of Dance:         

http://webpub.allegheny.edu/employee/a/adale/Neurodance/titlepage.html

 

·         Philosophy of Neuroscience: 

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/neuroscience/

 

·         Harvard Vision Lab:      

http://visionlab.harvard.edu/demos.html

 

·         Dale Purves' Lab:         

http://www.purveslab.net/

 

·         Image Understanding Lab:     

http://geon.usc.edu/

 

·         KISMET: 

http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/kismet/kismet.html

 

·         The Emerging Brain, Reith Lectures 2003:  

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2003/lecturer.shtml

 

·         The Brain Glossary & Interactive Brain Map:           

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2003/glossary.shtml

 

·         Chuck Close's Evolving Style (for The Fry-Ruskin Thesis)

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/museums/photogallery/chuckclose/chuckclose1.htm

http://www.artsconnected.org/artsnetmn/identity/close.html

 

·         Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

http://plato.stanford.edu

 

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B.     Supplemental Bibliography

 

Aesthetics:

 

·         Beardsley, Monroe C. (1978).  “The Aesthetic Point of View,” in ed. J. Margolis, Philosophy Looks at the Arts, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, pp. 624.   

·         Bywater, William G. (1975).  Clive Bell’s Eye, Wayne State University Press, Detroit.

·         Carrier, David (1977).  "American-Type Formalism," in ed. David Goldblatt and Lee B. Brown, Aesthetics, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1997, pp. 23 – 29. 

·         Carroll, Noλl (2001). "Formalism," in ed. Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes.  The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge, New York, pp. 87 – 96. 

·         ---------  (2000).  “Art and the Domain of the Aesthetic,” The British Journal of Aesthetics, Volume 40, Number 2, April, pp. 199 – 208.

·         ---------  (1999).  The Philosophy of Art, Routledge, New York. 

·         ---------  (1989).  "Clive Bell's Aesthetic Hypothesis," in ed. George Dickie, Richard Sclafini, and Ronald Roblin, Aesthetics, Second Edition, New York:  St. Martin's Press, pp. 84 – 95.

·         Crowther, Paul (1985).  "Greenberg's Kant and the Problem of Modernist Painting,"  British Journal of Aesthetics, Volume 25, Number 4, Autumn, pp. 317 – 325.        

·         Curtin, Deane W. (1982).  "Varieties of Aesthetic Formalism," The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Volume XLI, Number 3, Spring. 

·         Danto, Arthur (1988).  "Foreword to Color for Philosophers," Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, pp. ix – xii.

·         ---------  (1964). "The Artworld," The Journal of Philosophy, volume 61, number 19, pp. 571 – 584.

·         ---------  (1965).  "Clive Bell and the Method of Principia Ethica," The British Journal of Aesthetics, Volume 5, Number 2, April, pp. 139 – 143

·         ---------  (1964).  "The Myth of the Aesthetic Attitude," American Philosophical Quarterly, 1, No. 1, pp. 56 – 66, reprinted in ed. George Dickie, Richard Sclafini, and Ronald Roblin, Aesthetics, Second Edition, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1989, pp. 342 – 355.

·         Ekman, Rosalind, (1970).  "The Paradoxes of Formalism," The British Journal of Aesthetics, Volume 10, Number 4, October. 

·         Freeland, Cynthia (2001).  But Is It Art?, Oxford University Press, New York.         

·         Fry, Roger (1934).  Reflections on British Painting, Ayer Company Publishers, London, 1934. 

·         Gabo, Naum (1962).  Of Diverse Arts, Pantheon Books, New York. 

·         Gaut, Berys and Dominic McIver Lopes (2001).  The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge, New York. 

·         Goldblatt, David and Lee B. Brown (1997).  Aesthetics, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 

·         Goldman, Alan (1998).  Aesthetic Value, Westview Press, Boulder Colorado.       

·         Gombrich, E. H. (1984).  "Meditations on a Hobby Horse or the Roots of Artistic Form," Meditations on a Hobby Horse, Fourth Edition, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1984, pp. 1 – 11.

·         ---------  (1960).  "The Limits of Likeness," in ed. David Goldblatt and Lee B. Brown,  Aesthetics, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1997, pp. 35 – 40. 

·         Gould, Carol S. (1994).  "Clive Bell on Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Truth," The British Journal of Aesthetics, Volume 34, Number 2, April, pp.  124 – 133. 

·         Greenberg, Clement. (1999).  "Esthetic Judgment," Homemade Esthetics, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 10 – 22.

·         ---------  (1999).  Homemade Esthetics, Oxford University Press, New York.            

·         ---------  (1995).  The Collected Essays and Criticism, Volume 4, ed. John O'Brian, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

·         ---------  (1973).  "Intuition and Esthetic Experience," Homemade Esthetics, Oxford             University Press, New York, 1999, pp. 3 – 9. 

·         ---------  (1965).  "Avant-Garde and Kitsch," Art and Culture, Beacon Press, Boston, pp. 3 – 21.

·         Harrison, Charles and Paul Wood (2001).  Art in Theory:  1825 – 1900, Blackwell Publishers, Malden, Massachusetts. 

·         ---------  (2000).  Art in Theory:  1900 – 1990,  Art in Theory:  1825 – 1900, Blackwell Publishers, Malden, Massachusetts. 

·         Hofstadter, Albert and Richard Kuhns (1976).  Philosophies of Art and Beauty, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

·         Hume, David (1989).  Four Dissertations, in ed. George Dickie, Richard Sclafini, and Ronald Roblin, Aesthetics, Second Edition, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1989, pp. 242 – 253. 

·         Hutcheson, Francis (1989).  An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, in ed. George Dickie, Richard Sclafini, and Ronald Roblin, Aesthetics, Second Edition, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1989, pp. 219 – 222. 

·         Kostelanitz, Richard (1989).  Esthetics Contemporary, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, New York.

·         Margolis, Joseph (1997).  "Interpretation," in ed. David Cooper, A Companion to Aesthetics, Blackwell, Malden, MA, 1997, pp. 232 – 238.

·         Mondrian, Piet (1945).  Plastic Art and Pure Plastic Art, Wittenborn and Company, New York. 

·         Rickey, George W. (1960).  "The Morphology of Movement," Art Journal, Volume XXII, Number 4, pp. 220 – 231. 

·         Stolnitz, Jerome (1961).  "On the Origins of 'Aesthetic Disinterestedness," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Volume 2, pp. 131 – 143.

·         ---------  (1960).  "Beauty:  Some Stages in the History of an Idea," Journal of the History of Ideas, Volume 22, Number 2, pp. 185 – 204.

·         ---------  (1960).  Art and Criticism, Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 

·         Tatarkiewicz, Wladyslaw (1974).  "The Great Theory of Beauty and Its Decline," The History of Aesthetics, Volumes I & II, Mouton, The Hague. 

·         Wallis, Brian, (1984).  Art After Modernism:  Rethinking Representation, The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York. 

 

 

 

Philosophy of Mind & Cognitive Science:

           

·         Abell, Catherine and Gregory Currie (1999).  "Internal and External Pictures," ed. Mark Rollins, Philosophical Psychology:  Special Symposium:  Aesthetics and Cognitive Science, Volume 12, Number 4, December, pp. 429 – 446.

·         Aguirre, G. K. and M. J. Farah (1998).  "Human visual object recognition:  What have we learned from neuroimaging?" Psychobiology, Volume 26, Number 4, pp. 322 – 332.

·         Akins, Kathleen A. (2001)  "More than Mere Coloring:  A Dialogue Between Philosophy and Neuroscience on the Nature of Spectral Vision," in Carving our Destiny, S. Fitzpatrick and J. T. Breuer, editors. Joseph Henry Press: Washington, D.C., p. 1, http://www.sfu.ca/neurophilosophy/members/akins/appessay.htm

·         Anderson, John R. (1978).  "Arguments Concerning Representations for Mental Imagery," Psychological Review, Volume 85, Number 4, July, pp. 249 – 277. 

·         Bartels, A. and S. Zeki (1998).  "The Theory of Multistage Integration in the Visual Brain," proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Volume 265, pp. 2327 – 2333.

·         Basso, Anna, Edoardo Bisiach, and Claudio Luzzatti (1980).  "Loss of Mental Imagery:  A Case Study," Neuropsychologia, Volume 18, pp. 435 – 442.

·         Bechtel, William and Jennifer Mundale (1999).  "Multiple Realizability Revisted:  Linking Cognitive and Neural States,"  Philosophy of Science, 66, June, pp. 175 – 207.

·         Bechtel, William, Pete Mandik, and Jennifer Mundale (2001).  Philosophy and the  Neurosciences, Blackwell Publishers, Malden, Massachusetts.

·         Biederman, Irving (1995). "Visual Object Recognition," in Stephen M. Kosslyn and Daniel N. Osherhorn, Visual Cognition, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995, pp. 121 – 165.

·         ---------  (1987).  "Recognition-by-Components:  A Theory of Human Image Understanding," Psychological Review, Volume 94, pp. 115 – 147.

·         Bickle, John, Mandik, Peter, "The Philosophy of Neuroscience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2002 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2002/entries/neuroscience/>.

·         Bisiach, Edoardo and Claudio Luzzatti (1978).  "Unilateral Neglect of Representational Space," Cortex, Volume 14, pp. 129 – 133.

·         Cabeza, Roberto and Alan Kingstone (2001).  Handbook of Functional Neuroimaging of Cognition, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts .

·         Crick, Francis and Christoph Koch (1995).  "Are We Aware of Activity in Primary Visual Cortex?" Nature, Volume 375, May 11, pp. 121 – 123.

·         Currie, Gregory (2003).  "Aesthetics and Cognitive Science," in ed. Joseph Margolis, Aesthetics, Oxford University Press, New York.

·         ---------  (2002).  Recreative Minds, Oxford University Press, New York.

·         ---------  (2001).  "Imagination and MakeBelieve," in ed. Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes, The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge, New York,     pp. 253 - 262. 

·         ---------  (1995a).  "Imagination and Simulation:  Aesthetics Meets Cognitive Science," in ed. Martin Davies and Tony Stone, Mental Simulation, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 151 – 169. 

·         ---------  (1995c).  Image and Mind, Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press,1995.

·         ---------  (1990).  The Nature of Fiction, Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1990.

·         Farah, Martha J. (2000).  The Cognitive Neuroscience of Vision, Blackwell Publishers Malden, Massachusetts.

·         ---------  (1992).  Visual Agnosia, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

·         ---------  (1988a).  "Electrophysiological Evidence for a Shared Representational Medium for Visual Images and Visual Percepts," Journal of Experimental Psychology:  General, Volume 117, Number 3, pp. 248 – 257.

·         ---------  (1988b). "Is Visual Imagery Really Visual?  Overlooked Evidence from Neuropsychology," Psychological Review, Volume 95, Number 3, pp. 307 – 317. 

·         ---------  (1984).  "The neurological basis of mental imagery:  a componential analysis," Cognition (18), pp. 245 – 272.

·         Goguen, Joseph A. (1999).  Journal of Consciousness Studies:  Art and the Brain, Volume 6 (1999):  June/July, Imprint Academic, Thiverton, England.

·         Goguen, Joseph A. and Erik Myin (2000).  Journal of Consciousness Studies:  Art and the Brain II, Volume 7, No. 8/9 (2000), Imprint Academic, Thiverton, England.

·         Gregory, Richard L. (1977).  Eye and Brain, Fifth Edition, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

·         Gregory, Richard, John Harris, Priscilla Heard, and David Rose (1995).  The Artful Eye, Oxford University Press, New York.

·         Grossberg, Stephen (1993).  "A Solution for the Figure-Ground Problem for Biological Vision," Neural Networks, 6, pp. 463 – 483.

·         Grossberg, Stephen and Ennio Mingolla (1985).  "Neural Dynamics of Form Perception:  Boundary Completion, Illusory Figures, and Neon Color Spreading," Psychological Review, Volume 92, Number 2, pp. 173 – 211.

·         Hildreth, Ellen (1999).  "Computational Vision," in eds. Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995, pp. 172 – 173.

·         Hubel, David H. (1995).  Eye, Brain, and Vision, Scientific American Library, New York.

·         Hubel, D. H. and T. N. Wiesel. (1968).  "Receptive Fields and Functional Architecture of Monkey Striate Cortex," journal of Physiology, 195, pp. 215 – 143, reprinted in ed. Steven Yantis, Visual Perception, Psychology Press, Philadelphia, 2001, pp. 147  167.

·         Intons-Peterson, Margaret Jean (1983).  "Imagery Paradigms:  How Vulnerable Are They to Experimenters' Expectations?" Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Volume 9, Number 3, pp. 394 – 412. 

·         Klein, Isabelle, Anne-Lise Paradis, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Stephen M. Kosslyn, and Denis Le Bihan (2000).  "Transient Activity in the Human Calcarine Cortex During Visual Mental Imagery:  An Event Related fMRI Study," Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12:  Supplement 2, pp. 15 – 23. 

·         Kosslyn, S. M. (1999).  "If Neuroimaging is the Answer, What Is the Question?" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B, Volume 354, pp. 1283 – 1294.             

·         ---------  (1996).  Image and Brain, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

·         ---------  (1995).  "Mental Imagery", in ed. Stephen M. Kosslyn, and Daniel N. Osherhorn, Visual Cognition, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995, pp. 267 – 296. 

·         Kosslyn, Stephen M. and Daniel N. Osherhorn (1995).  Visual Cognition, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

·         Kosslyn, Stephen M., Nathaniel M. Alpert, William L. Thompson, Vera Maljkovic, Steven B. Weise, Christopher F. Chabris, Sania E. Hamilton, Scott L. Rauch, and Ferdinand S. Buonnannol (1993).  "Visual Mental Imagery Activates Topographically Organized Visual Cortex:  PET Investigations," Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 5, pp. 263 – 287. 

·         Latto, Richard (1995).  "The brain of the beholder," in eds. Richard Gregory, John Harris, Priscilla Heard, and David Rose, The Artful Eye, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.

·         Livingstone, Margaret (2002).  Vision and Art:  The Biology of Seeing, Henry Abrams and Company, New York.

·         ---------  (2000).  "Is it warm?, Is it real? Or just low spatial frequency?" Science, November 17, 290, p. 1299.

·         ---------  (1988).  "Art, Illusion, and the Visual System," Scientific American, Volume 256, pp. 78 – 85.

·         Marr David (1982).  Vision, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York.

·         Marr, David (1977).  "Analysis of occluding contour," Procedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Volume 197, pp. 441 – 475.

·         Marr, David and H. K. Nishihara (1978).  "Visual Processing:  Artificial intelligence and the sensorium of sight," Technology Review, 81, pp. 2 – 23, reprinted in eds. Stephen M. Kosslyn and Richard A. Anderson, Frontiers in Cognitive Neuroscience, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996.

·         McMahon, Jennifer Anne (2001).  "Beauty," in ed. Berys Gaut and Dominic McIver Lopes, The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Routledge, New York, 2001, pp. 227 – 238. 

·         ---------  (2000a) "Perceptual Beauty As the Basis for Genuine Judgments of Beauty," in ed. Joseph A. Goguenand Erik Myin, Journal of Consciousness Studies:  Art and the Brain II, Volume 7, No. 8/9 (2000), Thiverton, England:  Imprint Academic, 2000, pp. 29 – 36.

·         --------- (2000b). " Book Review:  Inner Vision,"  Leonardo Digital Reviews, September.

·         ---------  (1999).  "Towards a Unified Theory of Beauty,"  Literature and Aesthetics 9, pp. 7 - 27.

·         Mellet, E., N. Tzourio-Mazoyer, S. Bricogne, B. Mazoyer, S. M. Kosslyn, and M. Denis (2000).  "Functional Anatomy of High Resolution Visual Mental Imagery," Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 12, pp. 98 – 109. 

·         Moutoussis, K. and S. Zeki (1997a).  "A Direct Demonstration of Perceptual Asynchrony in Vision," Procedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Volume 26, pp. 393 – 399. 

·         ---------  (1997b).  "Functional Segregation and Temporal Hierarchy of the Visual Perceptive Systems," Procedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Volume 264, pp. 1407 – 1414. 

·         Ramachandran, V. S. and William Hirstein (1999).  "The Science of Art:  A neurological theory of aesthetic experience," in ed. Joseph A. Goguen, Journal of Consciousness Studies:  Art and the Brain, Volume 6 (1999):  June/July, Imprint Academic, Thiverton, England, pp. 15 – 51.

·         Ramachandran, V. S., and R. L. Gregory (1978).  "Does Color Provide an Input to Human Motion Perception?" Nature, Volume 275, September 7, pp. 55 – 56.

·         Rollins, Mark (1999a).  "Introduction," in ed. Mark Rollins, Special Symposium:  Aesthetics and Cognitive Science, Philosophical Psychology, Volume 12, Number 4, December, pp. 381 – 386. 

·         ---------  (1999b).  "Pictorial Representations:  when cognitive science meets aesthetics," ed. Mark Rollins, Special Symposium:  Aesthetics and Cognitive Science, Philosophical Psychology, Volume 12, Number 4, December, pp. 387 –       414.

  • ---------  (1999).  (ed.) Special Symposium:  Aesthetics and Cognitive Science, Philosophical Psychology, Volume 12, Number 4, December.
  • Sacks, Oliver and Robert Wasserman (1987).  "The Case of the Colorblind Painter," The New York Review of Books, Volume XXXIV, Number 18, November 19, pp. 25 – 34.

·         Soslo, Robert L. (2000).  "The Cognitive Neuroscience of Art:  A Preliminary fMRI Observation," ed. Joseph A. Goguenand Erik Myin, Journal of Consciousness Studies:  Art and the Brain II, Volume 7, No. 8/9 (2000), Imprint Academic, Thiverton, England.

  • ---------  (1999).  Cognition and the Visual Arts, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • Tarr, Michael J. and Heinrich H. Bultoff (1998).  "Image-based object recognition in man, monkey, and machine," Cognition 67, pp. 1 – 20.
  • Thompson, William L. and Stephen M. Kosslyn (2000).  "Neural Systems Activated during Visual Mental Imagery, " in ed. Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta, Brain Mapping:  The Systems, New York:  Academic Press, 2000, pp. 536 –            560.
  • Toga, Arthur W. and John C. Mazziotta (2000).  Brain Mapping:  The Systems, Academic Press, New York, 2000.
  • Walton, Kendall (1992).  "Mimesis as Make-Believe," Art Issues 21, pp. 22 – 27, reprinted in ed. David Goldblatt and Lee B. Brown,  Aesthetics, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:  Prentice Hall, 1997, pp. 56 – 62.
  • ---------  (1990).  Mimesis as Make-Believe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Warrington, E. K. and P. Rabin (1972).  "Visual Span of Apprehension in Patients with Unilateral Cerebral Lesions," Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Volume 23, pp. 423 – 431.
  • ---------  (1970).  "Perceptual Matching in Patients with Cerebral Lesions," Neuropsychologia, Volume 8, pp. 475 – 487.
  • Warrington, E. K. and A. M. Taylor (1973).  "The contribution of the right parietal lobe to object recognition," Cortex, Volume IX, No. 2, pp. 152 – 164.
  • ---------  (1978).  "Two Categorical Stages of Object recognition," Perception, 7, pp. 695 – 705.
  • Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil (1995).  The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Yantis, Steven (2001).  Visual Perception, Psychology Press, Philadelphia.
  • Zeki, Semir (2000).  "Artistic Creativity and the Brain," Science, July 6, 293, pp. 51-52.
  • ---------  (2000).  "Art and the Brain," Goguen, Joseph A.  Journal of Consciousness Studies:  Art and the Brain, Volume 6 (1999):  June/July, Imprint Academic, Thiverton, England, 1999, pp. 76 – 96.
  • ---------  (1993).  A Vision of the Brain, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston.
  • ---------  (1999).  Inner Vision, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.
  • Zeki, S. and A. Bartels (1998).  "The Asynchrony of Consciousness," Procedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Volume 265, pp. 1583 – 1585.
  • Zeki, S. and D. H. ffychte (1998).  "The Riddoch Syndrome:  Insights Into the             Neurobiology of Conscious Vision," Brain, Volume 121, 1998, pp. 25 – 45.
  • Zeki, S. and M. Lamb (1994).  "The neurology of kinetic art," Brain, 117, pp. 607 – 636.
  • Zeki, S. and K. Moutoussis (1997).  "Temporal Hierarchy of the Visual Perceptive Systems in the Mondrian World," Procedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Volume 264, pp. 1415 – 1419.
  • Zeki, S., J. D. G. Watson, C. J. Lueck, K. J. Friston, C. Kennard, and R. S. J. Frackowiak (1991).  "A Direct Demonstration of Functional Specialization in Human Visual Cortex," The Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 11, Number 3, March 1991, pp. 641 – 649.
  • Zeki, Semir, J. D. G. Watson, C. J. Lueck, K. J. Friston, C. Kennard, and R. S. J. Frackowiak (1991).  "A Direct Demonstration of Functional Specialization in Human Visual Cortex," Journal of Neuroscience, 11, pp. 641 – 649.

 

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