Caring for Creation Final Paper

Paper Guidelines
You are free to write about any topic of interest that is relevant to the themes of the course. Typical paper lengths have been in the range of seven to ten pages. Please use endnotes or footnotes, and standard bibliographical references. Don't hesitate to contact T. Tracy or J. Smedley for suggestions on how to develop a topic. A list of paper titles and bibliographies from the Winter 1998 class is given below.

Paper Titles and Bibliographies from Winter Semester, 1998

1) Will Christianity Save Planet Earth or Destroy It?
No Bibliography

2) Myth and Significance Chapters I-III of Genesis
Bultmann, Rudolf and Karl Jaspers. 1966. Myth and Christianity. New York: Noonday Press.
Childs, Brevard S. 1960. Myth and Reality in the Old Testament. London: SCM Press LTD.
Malina, Bruce J. 1986. Christian Origins and Cultural Anthropology. Atlanta: John Knox Press. Phipps, William E. 1989. Genesis and Gender. Biblical Myths of Sexuality and Their Cultural Impact. New York: Praeger Publishers.

3) Religious Thoughts to the Endangered Species Act Reauthorization
No Bibliography

4) Western Religion, Hinduism and Science
Griffiths, Bede. A New Vision of Reality. Springfield, Illinois: Templegate Publishers. 1989.

5) Gary Snyder's Community and the Environmental Crisis
Berry Wendell. Sex, Economy, Freedom and Community. San Francisco: Pantheon. 1993.
Meffe, Gary K. and Carroll, Ronald. Principles of Conservation Biology. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinuar. 1994.
Snyder, Gary. Earth Household: Technical Notes and Queries to Fellow Dharma Revolutionaries. New York: New Directions Press, 1969.
___. A Place in Space: Ethic, Aesthetics, and Watersheds: New and Selected Prose. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint. 1995.
___. The Practice of the Wild. San Francisco: North Point Press. 1990.
___. The Real Work: Interviews and Talks 1964-1979. New York: New Directions. 1980.
___. Qtd. In Turtle Talk: Voices for a Sustainable Future. Eds. Christopher Plant and Judith Plant. The New Catalyst Bioregional Series. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers. 1990.
Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. Windhorse Publishing. 1994.
Soule, Michael, and Bruce A. Wilcox (eds.) Conservation Biology. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinuar. 1980.
Strong, John. The Experience of Buddhism. Wadsworth Inc. 1995.
White, Lynn. "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis" in Science. 1967.

6) The Ceiling that Blocks the View: The Role of Women in Science and Religion.
Miller, Julie. "Familiar Enough, in Religion It's the Stained-Glass Ceiling." The New York Times, 25 May 1997, sec. CN: 1.
Wertheim, Margaret. Pythagoras' Trousers: God, Physics, and the Gender Wars. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1997.
Westen, Drew. Psychology: Mind, Brain, & Culture. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1996.
Vetter, Betty. "Ferment: Yes, Progress: Maybe, Change: Slow." Mosaic 23.3 (1992):34-41.

7) How Did the Universe Start? Where is it Going?
Coles, P. Cosmology: the Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure. New York: John Wiley. 1995.
Cowen, R. "Cosmic Ripples Test Inflation." Science News: June 7, 1997, n40, pp 354-356.
Ferris, T. "Inflating the Cosmos." Astronomy: July 1997, v25 n7, pp 38-44.
Horgan, J. "Pinning Down Inflation." Scientific American. June 1997, v276, pp 17-19.
Madsen, M. The Dynamic Cosmos: Exploring the Physical Evolution of the Universe. London: Chapman & Hall. 1995.
Regalado, A. "COBE Seeks Universe's First Blush." Science: May 19, 1995, v268 n5213, pp 975-977.
Schatzman, E. Our Expanding Universe. New York: McGraw Hill Inc. 1989.
Wald, R.M. Space, Time, and Gravity: the Theory of the Big Bang and Black Holes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1992.
No author given. "COBE's Swan Song: a Final Sky Map." Science News: Jan. 27, 1996, v149, p 63.

8) Human Nature in the Shadow of Global Warming
Cooper, Richard N. "Toward a Real Global Warming Treaty" in Foreign Affairs, March/April 1998.
"Hagel Hits Global Warming Estimates" from The Omaha World Herald (lexis nexis), March 6, 1998.
Miller, Marian A.L. The Third World in Global Environmental Politics. Lynne Riener Publishers. Boulder: 1995.
Soros, Marvin S. "Preserving the Atmosphere as a Global Commons" in Environment, March 1998.

9) Francis of Assisi: The Patron Saint of Ecology and Patron Saint of Animals
Brown, R. The Little Flowers of St. Francis. Image Books, Garden City, New York. 1958.
Cunningham, L. (Ed.) Brother Francis: An Anthology of Writings by and about St. Francis of Assisi. Harper & Row Publishers, New York, New York. 1972.
Eliade, M. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 5. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York, New York. 1987.
Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version. Second Edition. Thomas Nelson Inc., Nashville, Tennessee. 1971.
Milroy, G. (1998) Biblical Ecology: The Thesis [Online]. Available HTTP:
Nelson, T. Brother Earth: Nature, God and Ecology in a Time of Crisis. Thomas Nelson Inc., Camden, New Jersey. 1970.
Sorrell, R.D. St. Francis of Assisi and Nature: Tradition and Innovation in Western Christian Attitudes Toward the Environment. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 1988.
White, L. "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis." Science, 10 March 1967, 1203-1207.

10) The Christian Creation Myth Significance and Implications
Gilkey, Langdon. Maker of Heaven and Earth. Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company Inc., New York.
White, Lynn. "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis," in This Sacred Earth, edited by Gottlieb.
Notes from class lectures and discussions and notes from viewing the films "Keeping the Earth" and "The Earth is the Lord's."

11) Christianity: Nature's Friend or Foe?
Fowler, Robert B. The Greening of Protestant Thought. The University of North Carolina Press: 1995.
Nash, Roderick F. The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.
O'Connor, Daniel. Creation: The Impact of an Idea. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York: 1969.
White, Lynn. The Roots of Our Ecological Crisis. Copy from:
Creation is Separation: Exposing the Roots of Earth Crisis
Collard, Andre with Joyce Contrucci. Rape of the Wild: Man's Violence Against Animals and the Earth. Indiana University Press. Indianapolis, 1989.
Ling, Trevor. The Buddha. Maurice Temple Smith Ltd. Great Britain, 1973.
McFague, Sally. The Body of God: An Ecological Theology. Augsburg Fortress. Minneapolis, 1993.

12) An Interpretation of Genesis
Metzger, Bruce M. and Murphy, Roland E. The New Oxford Annotated Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Valdes, Mario J., ed. A Ricoeur Reader: Reflection and Imagination. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

13) Abortion, God, and Nature: A Comparative Analysis
Biale, Rachel. Women and Jewish Law: An Exploration of Women's Issues in Halakhic Sources. New York: Schocken, 1984.
Feldman, David M. Marital Relations, Birth Control, and Abortion in Jewish Law. New York: Schocken, 1968.
Gorman, Michael J. Abortion and the Early Church Christian, Jewish, and Pagan Attitudes in the Greco-Roman World. New York: Paulist, 1982.
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
Shoemaker, Donald P. Abortion, the Bible, and the Christian. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1977.

14) Questionable Facts: Science, Politics and Global Warming
DeWit, Andrew et al. Environmental Geology. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1998.
Santer, Ben. Lecture given at Bates College; February 3, 1998.
Soroos, Marvin S. "Preserving the Atmosphere as a Global Commons." Environment, March 1998.

15) Re-examining Christian Thought and Ecological Responsibility.
This Sacred Earth - Religion, Nature, Environment. Roger S. Gottlieb (ed.). Routledge: New York, NY. 1996.
-Kinsley, David. "Christianity as Ecologically Harmful" and "Christianity as Ecologically Responsible." p. 104.
-White, Lynn. "The Roots of our Ecological Crisis." p. 184.
-Pope John Paul II. "The Ecological Crisis." p. 230.
-Haught, John. "Christianity and Ecology." p. 270.

16) Deforestation in Third World Countries, The Effects on It's Indigenous People and the Environment
Bowyer, Jim. "Strategies for Ensuring the Survival of Tropical Forests." Forest Products Journal. July 1993.
Chambers, Catherine. "Environmental Preservation and Corporate Involvement." St. John's University Review of Business. June 1993.
Douglas, David. Environmental Eviction. The Christian Century Foundation. September 1996.
Hampson, Fen Osler. Environmental Change and Social Justice. Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation. April 1997.
Hin Yue, Pang. "Corporate Contradictions." New Straits Times. October 1997.
Isaksen, Allan. The Final Crisis of Capitalism Monthly Review. March 1996.
Shrivastava, Paul. "The Role of Corporations in Achieving Ecological Sustainability."
Academy of Management Review. October 1995.
Swenson, Karen. "Culture vs. Ecology in Nepal." American Labor Conference on International Affairs. July 1993.

17) The Roots of our Ecological Crisis
No bibliography cited.

18) The Perpetuation of Narrative and the Case for a Critical Universe
Barrow, John. The Origin of the Universe. New York: Harper Collins. 1994.
Davies, Paul. The Mind of God. New York: Orion Productions. 1992.
Joyce, James. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 1993. p. 187.
Rilke, Ranier Maria. Letters to a Young Poet. Trans. Joan M. Burnham. San Rafael: New World Library, 1992. p. 26.

19) The Order of Nature: Religion and Science Left in Awe
Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. London: Collier Macmillan, 1965. Gill, Jerry H., ed. Philosophy and Religion: Some Contemporary Perspectives. Minneapolis: Burgess, 1968.
Knowles, Karen. Celebrating the Land: Women's Nature Writings 1850-1991. Flagstaff: Northland, 1992.
Louth, Andrew. Discerning the Mystery: An Essay on the Nature of Theology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
Mason, Frances, ed. The Great Design: Order and Progress in Nature. New York: Macmillan, 1934.
Murphy, Pat. By Nature's Design. San Francisco: The Exploratorium, 1996.

20) The Buddhist Tradition and the Ecological Crisis
Badiner, Allan, ed. Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology. Berkeley: Paralax Press, 1990.
Brown, Brian. "Toward a Buddhist Ecological Cosmology," in Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Grim, John A., eds., Worldviews and Ecology. Toronto: Bucknell University Press, 1993. pp. 124-137.
Haught, John F. The Promise of Nature. New York: Paulist Press, 1993. pp. 43-47.
Kaza, Stephanie. "Acting with Compassion: Buddhism, Feminism, and the Environment Crisis," in Adams, Carol J., ed., Ecofeminism and the Sacred. New York: Continuum Publishing, 1993. pp. 53-69.
Kinsley, David. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995. pp. 84-98.

21) Think First, Act Second
Clements, Geoffery. Genetic Engineering: Technology or Crockery? Internet WWW page, at URL: <> (version current 30 March 1998).
Dawkins, Kristen, Michelle Thom, Carolyn Carr. Information About Intellectual Property Rights No. 1. Internet WWW page, at URL: <> (version current 30 March 1998).
Epstien, Don Dr. Why You Should be Concerned About Genetically Engineered Food. Internet WWW page, at URL: <http://userwww.sfsu.htm> (version current 30 March 1998).
Reisler, Jane. Biotechnology and Pest Control: Quick Fix vs. Sustainable Control. Internet. WWW page at URL: <> (version current 30 March 1998).
Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Agriculture & Biotechnology. Internet WWW page, at URL: <> (version current 31 March 1998).
Environment: Concern at the Growth of Genetically Modified Foods. Internet WWW page, at URL: <> (version current 31 March 1998).
Genetically Engineered Foods -- The Facts. Internet WWW page, at URL: <> (version current 31 March 1998).

22) The Value of Biodiversity and the Role of Religions in Finding Solutions to the Ecological Crisis
Bengtsson, et al. "The Value of Biodiversity," TREE, September 7, 1997.
Constanza, Robert, et al. "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," Nature, Vol. 387, May 15, 1997.
Davies, Paul. The Mind of God: the Scientific Basis for a Rational World, a Touchtone book published by Simon & Schuster, New York, 1992.
Gomez-Pompa, Arturo, and Andrea Kaus. "Taming the Wilderness Myth." BioScience, 42:4, April 1992.
Haught, John F. Science & Religion: From Conflict to Conversation. Paulist Press, New York. 1995.
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God: An Ecological Theology. Fortress Press, Minneapolis. 1993.
Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Gretchen Daily, ed. 1997.
Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 1989.
White, Lynn. "The Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis," in This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment. Roger S. Gottlieb, ed. Routledge, New York. 1996.

23) God vs. "Evolution"?
Anonymous. 1985. "Life -- How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?" Brooklyn, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York and International Bible Students Association.
Gish, Duane T. 1990. "The Amazing Story of Creation from Science and the Bible." El Cajon, CA, Institute for Creation Research.
McKown, Delos B. 1993. The Mythmaker's Magic: Behind the Illusion of "Creation Science." Buffalo, Prometheus Books.

24) A Response to the TeleologicalArgument
Davies, Paul. The Mind of God: The Scientific Basis for a Rational World. New York: Touchstone, 1992.
Feinberg, Joel, ed. Reason & Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems in Philosophy. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1996.
Handout: compiled by John Smedley and Thomas Tracy; citing: Universes, John Leslie;
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, Barrow and Tipler.

25) Are we ecological sinners or ecological winners?
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God: an Ecological Theology. Fortress Press, Minneapolis. 1993.

26) Change or Be Changed: Religion, Science, and the Ecological Crisis
Fox, Matthew. Original Blessing. Santa Fe: Bear & Company. 1983.
Freud, Sigmund. The Future of an Illusion. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books. 1964.
Haught, John. Science & Religion: From Conflict to Conversation. New York: Paulist Press. 1995.
The Holy Bible: Revised Standard Edition. New York: Meridian. 1974.
Kehoe, Alice Beck. The Ghost Dance: Ethnohistory and Revitalization. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 1989.
Martin, Calvin. Keepers of the Game: Indian-Animal Relationships and the Fur Trade. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1978.
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God: An Ecological Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1993.
Mulkay, Michael. Science and the Sociology of Knowledge. London; Boston: G. Allen & Unwin. 1979.

27) Am-Haaretz: People of the Land
Ben-Ari, Eyal and Bilu, Yoram, ed., Grasping Land. State University of New York Press. 1997.
Brueggerman, Walter. The Land. Fortress Press, Philadelphia. 1977.
Gorman, Paul. To Till and to Tend. The Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life, New York. 1994.
Halpern-Amaru, Betsy. Rewriting the Bible: Land and Covenant in Postbiblical Jewish Literature. Trinity Press International, Valley Forge. 1994.
Jacobs, Mark, ed. L'avdah ul'shamrah: To Serve and to Protect. Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life, New York. 1996.
Lilker, Shalom. Kibbutz Judaism: A New Tradition in the Making. Herzl Press, New York. 1982.
Musleah, Rahel. "Jews and the Environment," Na'amat Woman, Magazine of Na'Amat USA, New York. 1994.
Schifrin, Daniel. "Branching Out," The Jewish Week, New York. 1995.

28) The Bodily Call to Love
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1993.
Holy Bible, New International Version

29 Ecological Justice and Sin
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1993.

30 A Mythic Masterpiece: Analysis of Paradise Lost as a Creation Myth
Milton, John. Paradise Lost. 16??

31) Global Warming: The Emergence and Resurgence of Deadly Diseases
"The threat to human health; top physicians warn of dangers if the globe continues to warm." The Houston Chronicle, 4 December 1997, sec. A, 34.
"Environment; Global Warming will kill, health specialists predict." Chicago Tribune, 4 December 1997, sec. C,7.
Linden, Eugene. "Global fever: climate change threatens more than megastorms, floods and droughts. The real peril may be disease." Time, July 8, 1996.
Taupes, Gary. "Apocalypse not. (Predictions of effects of global warming on infectious disease). Science, November 7, 1997.
Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change: Summary of Proceedings, Executive Summary

32) A Look into Sufi Origina, Religious Figures, and Teachings
Barks, Coleman. Delicious Laughter: Rambunctious Teaching Stories from the Mathnawi of Jelaluddin Rumi. Athens, GA: Maypop Books, 1990.
Barks, Coleman. Like This. N/A: Maypop Books, 1990.
Barks, Coleman, trans. Rumi: We are Three. Putney, VT: Maypop Books, 1987.
Barks, Coleman & Robert Bly. Night and Sleep. Cambridge, MA: Yellow Moon Press, 1981.
Bly, Robert. When Grapes Turn to Wine: Versions of Rumi. Cambridge, MA: Firefly Press, 1983.
Feild, Reshad. The Last Barrier: A Journey Through the World of Sufi Teaching. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1976.
Lifchez, Raymond, ed. The Dervish Lodge: Architecture, Art, and Sufism in Ottoman Turkey. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992.
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God: An Ecological Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
Moyne, John, & Coleman Barks, trans. Open Secret: Versions of Rumi. Putney, VT: Threshold Books, 1994.
Nurbakhsh, Javad. In the Tavern of Ruin: Seven Essays on Sufism. London: Khaniqahi-nimatullahi Publications, 1978.
Schimmel, Annemarie. I am Wind, You are Fire: The Life and Work of Rumi. Boston: Shambhala, 1996.
Shah, Idries. The Sufis. New York: Anchor Books, 1964.

33) A Brief Discussion of the Teleological Argument
Davies, Paul. The Mind of God. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1992.
Hume, David. "Design and the Teleological Argument" in Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings, William L. Rowe and William J. Wainwright, (eds.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. 164-175. 1876.
Paley, William. "The Evidence of Design" in Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings, William L. Rowe and William J. Wainwright (eds.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. 157-164. 1805.
Rowe, William L. Philosophy of Religion: An Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1993.
Worthing, Mark William. God, Creation and Contemporary Physics. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. 1996.

34) Greening Christianity: Possibility or Paradox
Berry, Thomas. The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, p.xi. 1988.
Kearns, Laurel. "Saving the Creation: Christian Environmentalism in the United States," Sociology of Religion, 57:55. 1996.
Nash, Roderick. The Greening of Religion," in This Sacred Earth. Roger S. Gottlieb, ed. New York: Routledge, p. 195. 1996.
Spretnak, Charlene. "The Spiritual Dimension of Green Politics," in Ecology. Carolyn Merchant, ed. New Jersey: Humanities Press, p. 299. 1992.
White, Lynn. "The Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis," in This Sacred Earth. Roger S. Gottlieb, ed. New York: Routledge, p. 189. 1996.

35) Modern Cosmology: Is There Room for God?
Barrow, John D. The Origin of the Universe. New York: Harper Collins Publishers. 1994.
Davies, Paul. The Mind of God. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1992.
Haught, John F. Science & Religion: From Conflict to Conversation. New York: Paulist Press. 1995.
McFague, Sallie. The Body of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1993.

36) The Theory of Everything in the Garden of Eden
Hawking, Stephen. A Brief History of Time. New York: Bantam Books. 1988.
Wertheim, Margaret. Pythagoras' Trousers. New York: Times Books. 1995.

37) God, Technology, and a Big Bubble?
Cohen, Joel and David Tilman. "Biosphere 2 and Biodiversity -- The Lessons so Far. Science, Nov. 15, 1996.
Cohen, Joel and David Tilman. "Earth may be the only place for life." Sacramento Bee, Nov. 24, 1996.
McClellan, Jim. "Science and Technology: After the Bubble Burst. The Guardian, Nov. 6, 1997.
Pritchett, Young. New York Habits for a Radically Changing World. Pritchett and Associates Inc. Dallas, Texas.

38) Why Ought One Care for Creation?
No references cited.

39) A Social, Historical, and Psychological Analysis of Women's Estrangement from the Sciences
Brown, L.M., and Gilligan, C. 1992. Meeting at the Crossroads. New York: Ballantine Books.
Chodorow, N. 1978. The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fagot, B.I., Leinbach, M.D., and Kronsberg, S. 1985. "Differential reactions to assertive communicative acts of toddler boys and girls." Child Development, 56:1499-1505.
Leaper, C. 1991. "Influences and involvement in children's discourse: Age gender and partner effects." Child Development, 62:797-811.
Matlin, M.W. 1993. The Psychology of Women. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Javonovich College Publishers.
McFague, S. 1993. The Body of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Miller, J.B. 1986. Toward a New Psychology of Women. Boston: Beacon Press.
Miller, J.B., and Striver, I.P. 1997. The Healing Connection. Boston: Beacon Press.
Miller, P., Danaher, D., and Forbes, D. 1986. "Sex-related strategies for coping with interpersonal conflict in children aged five to seven." Developmental Psychology, 22:543-548.
Orenstein, P. 1994. School Girls. New York: Doubleday.
Ortner, S.B. 1974. "Is female to male as nature is to culture?" in M.Z. Rosoldo and L. Lamphere (eds.) Women, Culture, and Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Riger, S. 1995. "Epistemological debates, feminist voices: Science, social values, and the study of women." in N.R. Goldberger and J.B. Veroff (eds.) The Culture of Psychology Reader. New York: New York University Press.
Russell, R. 25 March 1998. Science and the Spiritual Quest. Lecture presented at Bates College, Lewiston, ME.
Sheldon, A. 1992. " Conflict talk: Sociolinguistic challenges to self-assertion and how young girls meet them." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 38:95-117.
Ware, M.C. and Stuck, M.F. 1985. "Sex role messages vis-a-vis microcomputer use: A look at the pictures." Sex Roles, 20:205-214.
Werheim, M. 25 February 1998. The Interaction Between Physics and Religion and its Effects on Women. Lecture presented at Bates College, Lewiston, ME.

40) The Discovery of Deep Time: The Foundation of Modern Geologic Thought
Butterfield, Herbert. 1959. The Whig Interpretation of History. G. Bell and Sons, Ltd.: London, p. 132.
Gould, Stephen J. 1987. Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle: Myth and Metaphor in the Discovery of Geological Time. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, p. 222.
Lyell, Charles. 1990. Principles of Geology, V. I. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, p. 511.
Lyell, Charles. 1990. Principles of Geology, V. II. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, p. 330.
Lyell, Charles. 1990. Principles of Geology, V. III. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, p. 398.
Playfair, John. 1956. Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory on the Earth. Dover Publications, Inc.: New York, p. 528.

41) Androids or Humanity
Freedman, David. Brainmakers How Scientists are Moving Beyond Computers to Rival the Human Brain. Simon & Schuster: New York, NY. 1994.
Kaku, Michio. Visions How Science will Revolutionize the Twenty-first Century. Anchor Books Doubleday: New York, NY. 1997
Paul, Gregory S. and Earl D. Cox. Beyond Humanity Cyber Evolution and Future Minds. Charles River Media Inc.: Rockland, MA. 1996.
Russell, Stuart and Peter Norvig. Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach. Prentice-Hall Inc.: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 1995.
Silber, Kenneth. Reason, 8:29, p46. January, 1998.
Hebrew Bible, Genesis Story.

42) Untitled
Aveni, Anthony F. Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, p.4. 1980.
Sawyer-Laucanno, Christopher, trans. The Destruction of the Jaguar. San Francisco: City Light Books, intro. i. 1987.

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