Caring For Creation
Review Sheet for Exam #1

I. Introduction: Religion and Science

Explain Haught's four ways in which science and religion can be related to each other. Give an example that illustrates each of these types of relationship. Note that one could approach a single topic, like the idea of creation, in each of these four ways.

Which of Haught's ways of relating science and religion do you think is most descriptive of the way science and religion have related in the past, as described in Worthing's article? Which do you think is most descriptive of the way science and religion should now relate to each
other, and why?

Explain the basic structure of scientific inquiry, making use of Barbour and/or our discussion in class?

What does Barbour mean by saying that "all data are theory-laden"? How does this affect our ability to test a theory?

Explain the four criteria that Barbour presents for assessing scientific theories. Do you think that these criteria could be used assess religious views as well? Explain why or why not.

II. Energy and Environment

Decribe as many different forms of energy found in nature as you can. What are several different ways to quantify an amount of energy, and how are they defined?

Trace the transformations of energy from one form to another in the process of generating electricity from a fossil fuel. Could these transformations ever be 100% efficient? Why or why not?

Explain what is meant by the "Principle of the Conservation of Energy." Describe the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and the "mechanical equivalent of heat." How are they relevant to the production of energy for societal uses?

What is "electromagnetic radiation?" Decribe 4 different "types" and connect them to relevant types of natural phenomena.

Describe 4 important energy sources for societal uses and tell how each is derived from fundamental natural processes. Explain how the energy content of fossil fuels is transformed into electrical energy. What's a typical efficiency for this set of processes?

Describe Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion. How do they constitute an improvement over Copernicus's model? What did Newton add to this understanding of planetary motion?

A Carnot heat engine derives energy from a reservoir at 750 K and deposits waste heat into a sink held at 350 K. Calculate the efficiency with which it can do work, i.e. the ratio of the work done to the energy put into the system.

Recall the pendulum experiment performed in class...what was its outcome? Describe the pendulum's motion from the perspective of energy considerations.

Explain what is meant by the term "blackbody radiation" and give two examples of radiators that are approximate blackbodies. Find the peak emission wavelength of a given blackbody radiator at temperature of 3500 K. If it's temperature is decreased to 1750 K, by what factor does its radiated power output decrease?

CO2 is a potent greenhouse gas. Why? What does it do, physically,that causes it to act as a potent greenhouse gas, and how is this connected to Earth's thermal emission spectrum? Describe four activities you engage in each day that generate greenhouse gases.

What is meant by "renewable energy?" Give five examples, including two different types of direct solar energy use, and briefly explain how each is utilized. Why might it be prudent to develop these sources further? What hinders such development?