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Frequently Asked Questions About Writing Journal Style Papers.....Just the FAQs

[ Table of Contents ]

| General | Title | Abstract | Introduction | Methods | Results | Tables and Figures | Discussion |
| In-text references and Literature Cited | Appendices | Latin Names | Numbers and writing


GENERAL FAQs

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TITLE FAQs

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ABSTRACT SECTION FAQs

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INTRODUCTION SECTION FAQs

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METHODS SECTION FAQs

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RESULTS SECTION FAQs

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TABLE AND FIGURE FAQs

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DISCUSSION SECTION FAQs

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REFERENCES AND LITERATURE CITED SECTION FAQs

 

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APPENDICES FAQs

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FAQs

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WRITING AND NUMBERS

Writing Numbers: Whether to enter numerals or words for a number is often confusing. In different situations, this will vary, but probably a fair generality is that a numeral is shorter than a word, so use a numeral, with the following exceptions:

  • You cannot begin a sentence with a numeral. The number "1,256,781" must be entered at the beginning of a sentence as "One million, two hundred fifty-six thousand, seven hundred and eighty-one," as ridiculous as it seems. If the number involves a unit of measure, the unit must be likewise spelled out as a word in most cases (pH would be one exception). Work the sentence so you don't have to begin it with the number!
  • When not speaking of data or experimental groupings, use words instead of numerals for small numbers: "two centuries ago," "For well over fifty years..", "Of the many millions of fish released..."
  • Numbers are generally written as numerals when a specific value is named, and always when associated with a unit of measure: "270 centuries ago," "59 people...", "...47.8 g dry weight...".

 

Modified 11-7-11
Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240