This document was approved by the Faculty on April 6, 1987, for circulation to all students in Bates College.
Bates College does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national or ethnic origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, marital or parental status, age, or handicap, in the recruitment and admission of its students, in the administration of its educational policies and programs, or in the recruitment and employment of its faculty and staff.
Adopted by the Faculty in April 1975
There are many forms of academic dishonesty. Here we are concerned especially with plagiarism. Plagiarism is the representation of another person's words, ideas, or information as if they were one's own. You may use another person's words, ideas, or information, but to do so without acknowledgment constitutes plagiarism. This applies to both oral and written work.
B. Reasons for Citing Sources
The fundamental reason for citing sources is intellectual honesty. You are guilty of plagiarism if you do not cite your sources.
Citing your sources can also be helpful to you and your reader.
C. What to Cite
Although it is impossible to list all possible circumstances, the following illustrate the range to which the principle applies. You may describe Einstein's theory of relativity, but if you present it as your theory you are guilty of plagiarism. You may summarize a Supreme Court opinion in your own words, but if you incorporate the language of the original without indicating that you are doing so, you are guilty of plagiarism. Copying from someone else's paper during an examination is plagiarism. The submission of a term paper purchased from or prepared by someone else also constitutes plagiarism.
Acknowledgment should be made not only for theories, interpretations, ideas, and language adopted from other sources, but also for nonverbal material such as artistic and musical works, illustrations, charts, and experiments. Indicate the sources of data, whether from reference works, computer data files, or your own efforts.
Acknowledge specific detailed assistance from friends, instructors, or others. On collaborative projects, indicate who contributed which portions of the endeavor. Copying another person's lab report or running off a duplicate listing of a computer homework assignment is plagiarism. A student who wishes to submit work for credit in more than one course should consult with the instructor(s) in advance.
Beliefs so widely held as to defy citation and information (such as birth and death dates) obtainable from any of a number of authoritative sources are considered "common knowledge" and need not be cited. Also, phraseology in common use, such as "knowledge is power" (Bacon) or "military-industrial complex" (Eisenhower), may be duplicated without acknowledgment.
It is safer to acknowledge than not to acknowledge. Always supply a reference if you are in doubt; even a crude reference is better than none at all.
Perhaps the most serious form of plagiarism is failure to acknowledge the source of a direct quotation or paraphrase. Language, ideas, or information taken from others should be acknowledged at an appropriate point within the text. The mere inclusion of a source in the bibliography of a paper does not avoid plagiarism.
B. Direct Quotation
Quoted matter, from any source, should be distinctly set apart from other text in order to indicate that the language is not your own. Quotation marks are customarily used to mark the beginning and end of the quotation. In typewritten work, long quotations may be set apart by indenting and by single-spacing instead of double-spacing; when this is done, quotation marks are not used.
Be careful not to alter any quoted language without acknowledging that you have done so. Your own remarks inserted into a quotation should be set apart from the quoted material. This is ordinarily done by enclosing them in square brackets. The phrase "emphasis mine" or "emphasis supplied" indicates that you have supplied underlining or other emphasis not found in the original. If a quotation is too long, you may wish to omit parts of it by using an ellipsis, a string of three periods (four at the end of a sentence), to indicate the words omitted.
In some fields the source of a quotation is acknowledged very specifically, as by a page reference; but in all cases the source of a quotation must be acknowledged.
It is not true that only direct quotations must be acknowledged. Failure to acknowledge the source of an indirect quotation, or paraphrase, is also a form of plagiarism. The writer of a paraphrase must acknowledge that it is a paraphrase and must identify the source. If the paraphrase contains phrases from the original source, those phrases must be acknowledged by quotation marks. If your sentence structure, your narrative, or the sequence or logic of your discussion is taken from your source, this fact should be acknowledged. The meaning of the original language must not be distorted in a paraphrase.
D. Information or Ideas
Credit should be given to the source of information or ideas not your own. You should name the articles, books, and other sources you have used in preparing your paper, and give detailed credit (e.g., page or chapter reference) for information and ideas that come from one particular place within the source.
E. Illustrations, Graphs, and Tables If illustrations, graphs, or tables are photocopied from a source, that source should be acknowledged precisely, e.g., by page or figure number.
If a figure or a table is redrawn or otherwise altered, you should acknowledge the source and indicate the extent to which it was used, as in the following examples:
From Smith. [Implies minimal alteration.]Some writers insert the year in parentheses following the name, thus: After Smith (1960).
Modified after Smith.
Data from Smith and from Jones.
F. Example of Proper and Improper Use of a Source
The following passage, relating to the plight of Sioux Indians after 1876, is taken from a book by Helen Hunt Jackson:
Contrast the condition into which all these friendly Indians are suddenly plunged now, with their condition only two years previous: martial law now in force on all their reservations; themselves in danger of starvation, and constantly exposed to the influence of emissaries from their friends and relations, urging them to join in fighting this treacherous government that had kept faith with nobody-neither with friend nor with foe....Below are four examples of how the above passage might be used in a term paper. Writer A has committed blatant plagiarism, omitting any form of acknowledgment. Writer B does provide a footnote, but is guilty of plagiarism nevertheless: some direct language quoted by writer B goes unacknowledged, and there is no indication of paraphrase; the footnote is a misleading and inadequate acknowledgment, because it seems to pertain to the final quoted phrase only. Of these examples, only writers C and D have used the source correctly.
Writer A (Plagiarism)G. Taking Notes
Only two years later, all these friendly Sioux were suddenly plunged into new conditions, including starvation, martial law on all their reservations, and constant urging by their friends and relations to join in warfare against a treacherous government that had kept faith with neither friend nor foe.
Writer B (Plagiarism)
The Sioux were now on the verge of starvation. Martial law was now in force on all their reservations. Emissaries from their friends and relations urged them to join in the fighting against the Federal Government - a "treacherous government that had kept faith with neither friend nor foe."
Writer C (Proper use of source material)
The conditions on Sioux reservations were far worse than they had been before. Jackson writes that "martial law [was] now in force on all their reservations," that the Indians were "in danger of starvation," and that "emissaries from their friends and relations" constantly goaded them "to join in fighting this treacherous government that had kept faith...neither with friend nor with foe."
Writer D (Proper use of souce material)
Conditions on the Sioux reservations had deteriorated seriously within that two year period. Food shortages were severe; the reservations were under martial law; and there was constant pressure to join friends and relations in armed rebellion against the government.
When you are doing research, record the names of the sources from which you are deriving words, ideas, or information; you should usually record the page number or other specific reference to the place from which each piece of material is taken. In your notes, be certain to distinguish between direct quotations, paraphrases, general summaries, and your own comments. If you copy directly from the source, indicate (for example, with quotation marks) that what you have copied is a direct quotation, and should be designated as such if you reproduce this language in your own paper.
You can avoid a great deal of trouble if you are precise about such matters when you do your research in the first place, rather than trying - perhaps unsuccessfully - to find your sources at the last minute. Similarly, it is much easier to take down the full bibliographical data on a source as soon as you begin to use a source rather than going through all of your sources an extra time in order to compile a bibliography.
H. Bibliographic Entries
With some exceptions, most forms of scholarly writing include at the end a list of references. Such a list is commonly called the bibliography; it may include works that have strongly influenced your thinking, even if they are not cited in the text. If a bibliography is restricted to works cited in the text, it might better be titled "References" or "Literature Cited."
Regardless of the format followed, certain information is usually included. For books: author, title, publisher, place of publication, and date of publication; when appropriate, the edition, volume number, or number of volumes. For journal articles: author, title, and inclusive page numbers of the article, journal name, volume number, and year of issue. In citing unpublished material, give as much information as you believe your reader would need in order to find and consult your original source.
A. Absence of a Universal Standard
No standard format has earned anything approaching universal acceptance, for different standards are often employed in different fields.
B. Use of Style Manuals
Detailed instructions for citing sources are contained in published style manuals. Generally useful manuals are available in the College Bookstore and are on reserve in Ladd Library.
Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
Kate L. Turabian. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press).
University of Chicago Press. A Manual of Style.
C. Department Recommendations
Most departments at Bates College recommend either a particular guide or a major journal illustrating the form of citation most widely accepted in the field. A copy of each is on reserve in Ladd Library.
Anthropology: American Anthropologist (a major journal in the field)
Art: Sylvan Barnett, A Short Guide to Writing About Art (Boston: Little Brown)
Biology: Council of Biology Editors, A Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers in the Biological Sciences
Chemistry: Janet S. Dodd, The American Chemical Society Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors
Economics: Use the author-date method as described in 1) K.L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press), or in 2) the Economics Department's handout "Preparing Papers and Theses: A Guide for Economics Students"
Education: K.L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press)
English: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
Foreign Languages: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
Geology: Geological Society of America: 1) Information for Contributors and 2) Geological Society of America Bulletin
History: K.L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press)
Mathematics: American Mathematical Society, Manual for Authors
Music: K.L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press)
Philosophy & Religion: 1) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and 2) author-date method
Physics & Astronomy: American Institute of Physics, Style Manual, prepared by David Hathwell and A.W. Kenneth Metzner
Political Science: K.L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (University of Chicago Press)
Psychology: American Psychological Association, Publication Manual
Sociology: American Sociological Review (a major journal) Theater & Rhetoric: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
There are two widely used general methods of citation; most other forms are variations on these. In most of the humanities and social sciences, footnotes are used to cite works consulted. In most of the sciences, footnotes are avoided, and the author-date method of citation is used instead. Both of these methods are explained below; they should never be combined.
A. Modified Chicago Style
The following paragraphs describe a system of scholarly citation commonly used in the humanities and most of the social sciences. It is based largely on the University of Chicago style followed by Turabian and by the Manual of Style of the University of Chicago Press. It differs in some particulars from the MLA style.
This chapter summarizes the expectations of many scholars in disparate fields of study; there are points on which not all of those who use this general format do as is indicated here.
For details not covered below, consult one of the style manuals listed in Part III above.
A2. Footnotes in General
A footnote is indicated in your text by a numerical superscript, i.e., a number in a raised position. This number should follow any punctuation except a dash. When you are acknowledging the source of a quotation, the footnote number should follow the end of the quoted matter. Footnote numbers in term papers should be consecutive throughout. Although many writers collect the footnotes at the end of the paper - between the text and bibliography - Turabian recommends typing the footnotes at the foot of each page. She also recommends typing or drawing a straight line of two inches, beginning at the left-hand margin, to make it clear to the reader where the text ends and the footnotes begin.
After this line, leave one line of typing blank, then begin the first footnote on the second line of typing. Introduce each footnote by a superior number (a superscript), on the same page where that number is used in the text. Single-space within each footnote, but double-space between successive footnotes on the same page.
A3. Footnotes: First Reference (Books)
The first reference to any published work should give complete bibliographical data on that work. This consists of the author's name, the complete title, the facts of publication, and an exact reference when appropriate. A page reference, for example, would ordinarily be appropriate for citing quotations.
For books, give the full names of all authors, in nominal order (i.e., first name or initial first), as in the following examples:
Clarence Perkins, Clarence H. Matterson, and Reginald I. Lovell, Modern Europe (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1941), p. 802.If the person responsible for the book is an editor or compiler rather than an author in the strict sense, insert the appropriate abbreviation (for example, ed., eds., comp., comps.) following his or her name. Book titles should be underlined, and every word should be capitalized except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions, but always capitalize the first word of a title or subtitle. If an edition other than the first is used, this should be specified in the following form:
T.S. Eliot, Notes Towards a Definition of Culture (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1949), p. 106.
J. William Fulbright, The Arrogance of Power (New York: Random House, 1966), pp.4-9.
Leonard Bloom and Philip Selznick, Sociology: A Text with Adapted Readings, 4th ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), pp. 126-127.The facts of publication are enclosed in parentheses. The city of publication is given first, followed by a colon. "London" or "Philadelphia" is sufficient, but for unfamiliar places, also give the country (spelled out) or state (abbreviated) in which it is located (e.g., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.); give the country or state whenever ambiguity might otherwise arise (e.g., Cambridge, Mass.; London, Ont.). Spell the place name in English (e.g., Vienna, not Wien). The publisher's name follows, with "The," "Inc.," and "Ltd." omitted, "and Sons" usually omitted, "Company" abbreviated to "Co." or else omitted, "Brothers" abbreviated to "Bros." or else omitted, and the ampersand (&) substituted for the word and. The date of publication follows; publication over several years is indicated as, e.g., 1917-1921.
Max Farrand, ed., The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, rev. ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1937), 1:64-65.
An exact reference to a chapter, page, or section may follow as in examples above. When you are citing a well-known text, of which there are several editions, and that text has fairly specific divisions other than pages, use the other divisions - e.g., sections within chapters, chapters within books, chapter and verse from books of the Bible, Stephanos numbers in Plato, Bekker numbers in Aristotle, lines or stanzas of long poems, and act, scene, and line in Shakespeare's plays. These are most likely to be standard from edition to edition, whereas page numbers vary.
Here are some examples:
Exodus 20:15.In some contexts and for some audiences it is appropriate to abbreviate author's names and titles of works such as the above, especially those of biblical texts and classical Greek and Roman materials. Turabian recommends that the writer consult the Oxford Classical Dictionary for a list of accepted abbreviations of classical names.
Plato, Meno 82a-85d.
Cicero, Laws 3. 1. 2-3. [This means book 3, chapter 1, sections 2-3. It could also be cited as "III.i. 2-3," or, least ambiguously, as "bk. 3, ch. 1, secs. 2-3." If your specific citation begins with a word or abbreviation rather than a number, it should be preceded by a comma, as in the following example.]
T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land, lines 67-77. [In contexts where omission of the author's name would cause no confusion, it is often considered permis- sible to omit it in cases such as this one; compare the next example.]
Romeo and Juliet 3. 1. 94-95. [This could also be cited as "III. i. 94-95" or as "act 3, sc. 1, lines 94-95"; the latter would be preceded by a comma. Shakespeare's name need not be given.]
A4. Footnotes: First Reference (Journal Articles)
The title of a journal article should be enclosed in quotation marks and not underlined. Capitalize it as you would a book title, and follow it with a comma. The name of the journal follows, capitalized as with a book title, and underlined. Here are examples of journal article citations in the modified Chicago style:
Brian Barry, "John Rawls and the Priority of Liberty," Philosophy and Public Affairs, 2 (1973): 283.A volume and page reference normally follows, in the form "15 (1970): 405-413," meaning, volume 15, pages 405 through 413, which was published in the year 1970. Note that this style uses Arabic numerals for volume numbers; certain other styles use Roman numerals instead, in the form "XV (1970), 405-413."
Robert A. Gordon, "Issues in Multiple Regression," American Journal of Sociology, 73 (1968): 595-596.
J. G. A. Pocock, "Machiavelli, Harrington, and English Political Ideologies in the Eighteenth Century," William and Mary Quarterly, ser. 3, 22 (1965): 549-550.
Also note that in the last of the sample footnotes above, a series designation precedes the volume number. Although Turabian prefers citing page numbers without giving all of the second of two inclusive numbers (e.g., 405-13 rather than 405-413), the use of complete page numbers takes little time or space, and reduces the chances of error.
Some writers give the "number" or "part" of a journal when citing an article from it. This is particularly helpful to readers when the article cited is in a recent volume, and would not yet be bound. You can cite the "number" in various ways, some of which are illustrated below:
Sheldon S. Wolin, "The Politics of Self-Disclosure," Political Theory, vol. 4, no. 3 (August 1976), p. 325.Note that "vol." and "p." (or "pp.") are either both used or both omitted.
Sheldon S. Wolin, "The Politics of Self-Disclosure," Political Theory, 4, no. 3 (August 1976): 325.
Sheldon S. Wolin, "The Politics of Self-Disclosure," Political Theory, vol. IV, no. 3 (August 1976), p. 325.
Sheldon S. Wolin, "The Politics of Self-Disclosure," Political Theory, IV,3 (August 1976): 325.
Many cases that are not treated here, such as the citation of poetry, and court opinions, are covered by Turabian and other stylebooks.
A5. Footnotes: Subsequent References
Once a work has been cited in full, subsequent references to that same work may be indicated in an abbreviated form as in the following examples:
Perkins et al., pp. 700-701.Note that each of these has been cited before, and that the titles of the works have been omitted. The omission of the title is permissible only if no ambiguity would arise, but if you cite from more than one work by the same author - and must therefore indicate which of these works you are citing in a subsequent reference - you may shorten the titles as a matter of convenience. If, for example, in addition to having cited Brian Barry's article "John Rawls and the Priority of Liberty" (n.6, above), you had cited his book The Liberal Theory of Justice, you could make reference to both of these previously cited works in the following, abbreviated form:
Farrand, ed., 1:66.
Wolin, p. 326.
Ibid., p. 325.
Barry, "John Rawls," p.284.The abbreviation "ibid." (for ibidem, in the same place) stands for everything in the previous footnote except for whatever follows the "ibid." By itself (i.e., without a page or other reference number), "ibid." designates the very same place as the footnote immediately preceding it, as specified by the page or other reference number contained in it.
Farrand, ed., 1:66.
Barry, Liberal Theory, pp. 1-5.
A6. Bibliographical Entries: Order of Data
In this system of citation, the order of bibliographical data about books is as follows: author, title, place of publication, publisher, and date. For an article, it is as follows: author, title, name of journal, volume number, date, and inclusive page numbers of the entire article.
A7. Bibliographical Entries: Author
All works should be alphabetized by the last name of the author. In this system of citation, works by the same author (or group of coauthors) are arranged alphabetically by title or chronologically. Authors are listed with their last names first. Some writers list all authors this way; but for works with more than one author, many writers list the second and subsequent authors' first names first.
A8. Bibliographical Entries: Titles, Editions, and Volumes of Books
After the author's name comes the title, which should be underlined. It should be given exactly as it appears on the title page, including the subtitle, if any. Titles in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated. Capitalize every word in the title, except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions; always capitalize the first word of a title or subtitle.
If an edition other than the first is used, this is indicated after the title. The number of volumes, if more than one, is indicated after the title or edition number, as in the following examples:
Bloom, Leonard, and Philip Selznick. Sociology: A Text with Adapted Readings. 4th ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.A9. Bibliographical Entries: Publication Data for Books
Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time. 6 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1948-75.
Popper, Karl R. The Open Society and Its Enemies. 5th ed., rev. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.
A10. Bibliographical Entries: Journal Article Data
Bibliographical references to journal articles follow the same format as those for footnote references, except that the author's name is given last name first and followed by a period (as with books), and that the inclusive page numbers of the entire article are given.
A11. Bibliographical Entries: Contributed Chapters, Symposia, Short Literary Works
If one author has written a chapter or contributed an article to a book or symposium volume of which someone else is the editor or principal author, list the chapter or article and cite the whole collection as well:
Chatman, Seymour, ed. and trans. Literary Style: A Symposium. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.Similarly, include in your bibliography a poem, short story, essay, or other literary work which appeared in an anthology or collection, and cite the collection as well:
Wellek, Rene. "Stylistics, Poetics, and Criticism," pp. 65-75 in Literary Style: A Symposium, ed. and trans. Seymour Chatman. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.
Matthias, John, ed. 23 Modern British Poets. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1971. [Note: this anthology should be alphabetized as if its title were spelled out, "Twenty-three...."]A12. Citation of Unavailable Works Through Secondary Citations
Thomas, D.M. "Elegy for an Android," p. 192 in 23 Modern British Poets, ed. John Matthias. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1971.
John Calvin, Joannis Calvini Opera Selecta, vol. 1, p. 139, quoted in T. H. L. Parker, John Calvin: A Biography (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1975), p. 44.In your bibliography:
Calvin, John. Joannis Calvini Opera Selecta, ed. P. Barth, W. Niesel, and D. Scheuner, vol. 1. Munich: C. Kaiser, 1952. Quoted in Parker.A13. Citation of Theses, Typescripts, and Manuscripts
Parker, T. H. L. John Calvin: A Biography. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1975.
Robert William Pladek, "Politics in the Funnies: The Influence of Political Cartoons on Public Perception of Political Leaders" (Honors thesis, Bates College, 1976), p. 10.In your bibliography:
Marilyn Lamond, "Eugene Scribe and the Spanish Theater, 1834-1850" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1958), p. 137.
Thomas Mann to Mrs. Edward M. Powell, 2 December 1940. William Lyon Phelps Collection Letters, Bates College Library, Lewiston, Maine.
Lamond, Marilyn. "Eugene Scribe and the Spanish Theater, 1834-1850." Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1958.A14. Citation of Other Materials
Mann, Thomas. Letter to Mrs. Edward M. Powell, 2 December 1940. (Typescript, William Lyon Phelps Collection Letters, Bates College Li- brary, Lewiston, Maine).
Pladek, Robert William. "Politics in the Funnies: The Influence of Political Cartoons on Public Perception of Political Leaders." Honors thesis, Bates College, 1976.
U.S. National Institute of Mental Health. Drug Abuse. 16mm motion picture, color, sound. Released by National Audiovisual Center, c1971.For sound recordings, specify whether a disc, tape, or another form. Give the speed and additional information as in the following example:
Gould, Glenn. Glenn Gould: Concert Dropout, in Conversation with John McClure. Phonodisc, 33 1/3 rpm, stereophonic, 2 sides. Columbia Records BS 15, c1968.Cite commercial computer software by stating name of program writer, title of program, descriptive label, distributor, year of publication, number of kilobytes, operating system, and form of program (disk, cassette, etc.):
Bradley, Drake R. DATASIM. Computer software. Bates College, 1987. IBM-PC, disk.Unpublished speeches and interviews are listed in your bibliography under the name of the speaker or the person interviewed, followed by the title or a description and the date:
Carter, Jimmy. Bates College Democratic Caucus, Lewiston, Maine. Speech, December 11, 1975.Works of art may be cited in footnote form, but if you cite many such works it is preferable to include a "List of Illustrations" or other comparable list at the end of your paper. References to this list are by Arabic numbers, standing without punctuation in the outside left margin of your text. The list itself usually gives the name of the artist, the birth and death dates, the title of the work, and the year of its completion. The form and medium of the work are then given, followed by the dimensions if the work is flat (painting or drawing as opposed to sculpture or architecture). The ownership is usually given last. These points are illustrated in the following examples:
Lennon, John. NBC Television Network, New York. Interview, September 15, 1975.
Reynolds, T. Hedley. "An American Primer: A Panoramic View of American History Since 1776." Charles Grant Memorial Lecture, Middlebury College, March 29, 1976.
CHURCH, FREDERIC EDWIN (1826-1900)If you have not seen the original work, but only a reproduction in a book or article, you should also indicate the source you used, in the manner indicated by sections A3 through A5, above.
Niagara Falls, 1857. Oil on canvas, 159 x 286 cm. Collection of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington.
Iceberg, 1891. Oil on canvas, 51 x 76 cm. Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh.
B. Author-Date Method
In the sciences there is less agreement on bibliographical style than in the humanities, though the majority of natural scientists do follow the author-date format in some version.
The following format adheres closely to that of A Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers in the Biological Sciences (see Part III, above), and also the style recommended for scientific writing by Turabian (chapter 12, superseding most of chapters 6-8) and by the Chicago Manual of Style.
B2. Citations in Text
In the author-date method, footnotes are not used as a means of citing sources. Instead of presenting bibliographical data in a footnote, the author and date are given thus:
According to Smith (1960),...Each of the above implies that the reader can find in your bibliography a full reference to a work published in 1960 by Smith, in which are contained whatever ideas or words you have cited. Note that the citation must precede a period or other terminal punctuation, as in the last example above.
Smith (1960) demonstrated that...
...was demonstrated (Smith, 1960).
B3. Variant Forms of Citation
A work with two or more authors is cited as "Smith and Jones (1960)" or as "Smith et al. (1960)." If more than one person named Smith is included in your bibliography, specify "J. Smith (1960)." If Smith published more than one paper in the same year list them as "Smith (1960a)" and "Smith (1960b)," both in your text and in the bibliography. If you have quoted Smith directly, indicate the exact page, in the form "Smith (1960, p. 18)" or "Smith (1960: 18)." Page references (and, similarly, table or figure references) may be desirable in certain other instances as well. Page references to a multi-volume book may be in the form "Davis (1950, 2:125)" or else "Davis (1950, vol. 2, p. 125)." If the volumes are separately listed in the bibliography, they may be cited as, e.g., "Davis (1950b: 125)."
B4. Bibliographical Entries: Authors
All works are alphabetized by the last name of the author. In the author-date format, works by the same author are arranged in chronological order of their publication. Within each entry, the order is as follows: author, date, title, publication data.
If there are several authors, the names of all except the first should be in nominal order (first name first). If a work is authored by a corporate body, list the work under the name of the corporate body as author (e.g., United States Public Health Service). If the person responsible for a work is an editor, cite as "(ed.)" or "(eds.)" following the name.
B5. Bibliographical Entries: Dates of Publication
Write out the year in full, e.g., 1896, not '96. If publication continues over several years, cite as 1912-1913, for example, not 1912-13. If several works by the same author (or the same set of coauthors) are published in the same year, list them as 1954a, 1954b, and 1954c, for example.
Because the date cited is that of publication, no date can be cited here for any type of unpublished material without giving the mistaken impression that the work has in fact been published. The date (if any) is cited in a different manner, described in Section B11, below.
B6. Bibliographical Entries: Titles
Reproduce the title in full, exactly as it appears on the title page of the work. Subtitles may be omitted if desired. Non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated. Use "sentence capitalization," i.e., capitalize only the first word of the title, any proper names, and other words that you would normally capitalize in ordinary text. Some persons prefer "title capitalization" for books (capitalizing all words except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions), and "sentence capitalization" for journal articles. (In German titles, capitalize every noun.)
In the author-date format, titles are neither underlined nor enclosed in quotation marks.
B7. Bibliographical Entries: Publication Data on Books
The place of publication follows the title, spelled out in English (e.g., Vienna, not Wien). Add the name of the country or state if the city is unfamiliar (e.g., Garden City, N.Y.) or if ambiguity might otherwise arise (e.g., Cambridge, Mass.; London, Ont.; Portland, Ore.). Following this data, give the name of the publisher, omitting "Brothers," "Sons," and "Inc.," and either abbreviating "Company" as "Co." or leaving it out altogether. After giving the publisher's name, you may give the total number of pages, e.g., 233 pp.
Editions other than the first should be identified as such, following the title. Multi-volume works may be cited as a single work by adding, e.g., 3 vols., instead of the number of pages; you may instead list each volume separately, citing, e.g., vol. 2, with or without inclusive page numbers of the volume, at the end of the bibliographical entry. Here are some examples:
Bolk, Louis, Ernst Goppert, Erich Kallius, and Wilhelm Lubosch. 1931- 1939. Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. Berlin and Vienna, Urban and Schwarzenberg, 6 vols. [Note that this would be cited in your text as Bolk et al. (1931-1939).]B8. Bibliographical Entries: Contributed Chapters and Symposia
Hall, E. Raymond, and Keith R. Kelson. 1959. The mammals of North America. New York, Ronald Press, 2 vols.
Kormondy, Edward J. 1969. Concepts of ecology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 209 pp.
Lindsay, Robert Bruce. 1969. The nature of physics, a physicist's view on the history and philosophy of his science. Providence, R.I., Brown University Press, 212 pp. [Subtitle and pages optional.]
Raup, David M., and Steven M. Stanley. 1971. Principles of paleontology. San Francisco, W. H. Freeman, 388 pp.
Stebbins, G. Ledyard. 1971. Processes of organic evolution. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
Washburn, Sherwood L. (ed.) 1963. Classification and human evolution. Chicago, Aldine. 371 pp.
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1964. Code international de nomenclature zoologique adopté par le XVe congrès international de zoologie. International code of zoological nomenclature adopted by the XV international congress of zoology. London, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. [This work, with corporate author, has a "split" title page, with both French and English title given.]
Anonymous. 1956. General guide to the American Museum of Natural History. New York, Man and Nature Publications, American Museum of Natural History. [Practice varies on the citation of anonymous works. [Listing under "Anonymous" as the author seems awkward to some people, but it does permit citing the work in the text as Anonymous (1956)]. Alternatives include listing the work by its title, with the date at the end, or where possible under a corporate author-here, the American Museum of Natural History.]
Huber, Ernst. 1933. The facial musculature and its innervation. In Hartman, Carl G., and William L. Straus, Jr. (eds.), 1933. The Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey, New York, Hafner Publishing Co., chapter 8, pp. 176- 188.In the entry for the included chapter by Huber, note that the chapter title uses "sentence capitalization" even when the title of the larger work uses "title capitalization." Note that the name of the larger work is introduced by In, both capitalized and underlined, that the (optional) subtitle has been omitted, and that the page numbers refer to Huber's chapter only. Note also that the larger work by Hartman and Straus is separately cited with its full title (including the optional subtitle), and that the page numbers cited are those of the entire book. Macaca mulatta is italicized only because it is the scientific name of a species and would therefore be italicized even in an ordinary sentence. Here is another example, taken from a collection by Washburn cited in section B7, above:
Hartman, Carl G., and William L. Straus, Jr. (eds.). 1933. The Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta). New York, Hafner Publishing Co., ix+383 pp.
Goodman, Morris. 1963. Man's place in the phylogeny of the primates as reflected in serum proteins. In Sherwood L. Washburn (ed.), Classification and human evolution (Chicago, Aldine), pp. 204-234.If the editor of a collection contributes a paper or chapter of his or her own, which you use, list both the entire work and the contributed article. For example, to cite the article which Washburn himself wrote for the above-cited collection, change the reference given in B7 to read "Washburn, Sherwood L. (ed.) 1963a..." and cite the included article as follows:
Washburn, Sherwood L. 1963b. Behavior and human evolution. In Sherwood L. Washburn (ed.), Classification and human evolution (Chicago, Aldine), pp. 190-203.B9. Bibliographic Entries: Journal Articles Following the title of the article, give the name of the journal in which it appears. In bibliographical entries, avoid underlining, italics, and quotation marks. Keep abbreviations to a minimum. Never abbreviate the names of cities (e.g., London, not Lond.) or single-word titles like Ecology. As a rule, words ending in "-ology" are abbreviated as "-ol.," e.g., embryol., bacteriol., sociol.; but use "anthrop." rather than "anthropol." The following are considered standard, permissible, abbreviations:
The volume (tome, Band) number is given, followed by a colon; this number may be underlined. The inclusive page numbers are then given, as, e.g., 413-414 (never as 413-14 or 413-4). The particular issue of the journal (number, fascicule, part, Heft) may be cited within parentheses, e.g., 14 (2): 23-29, meaning, vol. 14, number 2, pages 23-29. Here are some examples of journal article bibliographical entries in the author-date format:Amer. American Bull. Bulletin Hist. History or Historical J. or Jour. Journal Proc. Proceedings Rev. Review Sci. Science or Scientific Soc. Society, Société, etc.
Haines, R. Wheeler. 1939. A revision of the extensor muscles of the forearm in tetrapods. J. Anatomy, 73 (2): 211-233. [Note that "Anatomy," usually abbreviated "Anat.," has been spelled out to avoid any possible confusion with the French Journal d'Anatomie.]When a journal is divided into series, the series designation is presented in parentheses before the volume number; this designation may be a number, a letter, or the abbreviation n.s. (for "new series"), as in the following examples:
__________. 1958. Arboreal or terrestrial ancestry of placental mammals. Quart. Rev. Biol., 33 (1): 1-23. [Note that when a series of works by one author is listed, the author's name is not spelled out in the second and subsequent entries, but is replaced by an underline of seven or ten typed spaces.]
Hill, J. P. 1932. The developmental history of the primates. Philos. Trans. Royal. Soc. London (B) 211: 45-178.B10. Citation of Unavailable Works Through Secondary Citation
Green, Eunice Chace. 1935. Anatomy of the rat. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (n.s.) 27: 1-370.
(In your text:)B11. Citation of Theses, Typescripts, and Manuscripts
In another study, Bartrum (1941, cited by Pettijohn, 1957) concluded that...
(In your bibliography:)
Bartrum, J.A. 1941. Cone-in-cone and other structures in New Zealand coals. New Zealand J. Sci.Technol., (B) 22: 209-215. [Cited by Pettijohn, 1957.]
Pettijohn, F.J. 1957. Sedimentary rocks, 2nd ed. New York, Harper & Row.
Here are some examples:
Stratton, Charles William IV. MS. The reduction of triple bonds in a solution containing titanium III. Honors thesis, Bates College, 1967.B12. Citation of Other Materials
Smith, Eloise Lane. MS. General outline of the pageant of Bates College. Typescript, 1939, on deposit in Bates College Library.
Poets make good doctors, or a guide to careers in the health field for Bates students. Mimeographed pamphlet, Bates College, no date.
Chute, Robert M. MS. Breakage and re-union of DNA fragments and a plasmid using restriction enzyme R.EcoR1 and ligase. Dittoed, 1 p.
Einstein, Albert. MS. [Letter to F.D. Roosevelt, August 2, 1939.] (Note that the description of an untitled work is enclosed in square brackets.)
Washburn, Sherwood L. Irven Devore. c1962. Baboon Behavior. 16mm motion picture, color, sound. Available from University of California Extension Media Center, Berkeley, California 94720. [The information concerning availability might be helpful to your reader.]For sound recordings, specify whether a disc, a tape, or another form. Give the speed and additional information as in the following example:
A field guide to bird songs of eastern and central North America. Phonodisc, 33 1/3 rpm, 4 sides. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., c1959. [An anonymous work; may be listed by title or under "Anonymous."]Cite commercial computer software by stating name of program writer, date, title of program, descriptive label, distributor, number of kilobytes, operating system, and form of program (disk, cassette, etc.):
Bradley, Drake R. 1987. DATASIM. Computer software. Bates College. IBM-PC, disk.Unpublished speeches are listed in your bibliography under the speaker's name, followed by the title or description and the date. If there is no title, the description is enclosed in square brackets:
Carter, Jimmy. [Address to Bates College Democratic Caucus, Lewiston, Maine, Dec. 11, 1975.]Personal communications of any form addressed to you are not ordinarily listed in the bibliography, but should be cited in the text as, e.g., Jones (personal communication). Correspondence not directed to you personally is treated as a manuscript (see B11, Einstein example).
Students are held responsible for reading this document. The College assumes that failure to observe the principles summarized in Parts I and II is not accidental. As the Faculty Statement of Policy on Plagiarism says, the absence of any discernible attempt to give credit to your source will be taken as prima facie evidence of an intent to plagiarize. In other words, if you have made no attempt to give credit to someone else, you have created a presumption of willful plagiarism.
If academic dishonesty of any kind is suspected, redress is sought through judicial procedures outlined in the Student Handbook. First, the Dean of Students is notified by the person making the accusation. After discussions with the Dean, full judicial redress may be sought through the Committee on Student Conduct.
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Last modified: August 22, 1995