Guide to the William Hiss collection of Shiloh material, 1895-1977 | MC019

Summary Information

Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library
Hiss, William C.
William Hiss collection of Shiloh material
Date [bulk]
Bulk, 1895-1920
Date [inclusive]
0.25 Linear feet
Clippings from the Lewiston Evening Journal and other newspapers about the Kingdom religious movement and Frank Sandford the founder of the Shiloh complex in Durham, Maine which practiced this religion. The clippings were compiled by William Hiss in the course of researching his dissertation.

Preferred Citation

William Hiss collection of Shiloh material, Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library, Bates College.

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Historical Note

William Hiss, who wrote his doctorate dissertation on Shiloh, is the compiler of this collection of material related to Frank Weston Sandford and his Shiloh sectarian community which flourished at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Frank Weston Sandford which flourished in the beginning of the twentieth century. Sandford was on October 2, 1862, in Bowdoinham, Maine. In 1882, he entered Bates College and was a star player on the baseball team. After graduating in June 1886, Sandford entered the Maine State Seminary in September, having decided to pass up offers to play professional baseball. However, he stayed there for only three months and on New Years' Day 1887, Sandford was ordained a Freewill Baptist minister.

Sandford preached in several towns in his area until 1893, when he resigned his pastorate and became an independent evangelist. He soon founded The Kingdom as an evangelistic, apocalyptic Christian movement. A few years later, in 1896, Sandford and several others began construction of a Bible school in Durham, ME, called Shiloh. Shiloh would eventually grow into a self-contained town of over 600 people.

The Kingdom sought to prepare the world through prayer for Christ's second coming. As a means of doing this, Sandford and some of his followers made the first of several voyages around the world on the schooner Coronet in 1907. Following a voyage in 1911, on which several of his crew died from scurvy and starvation, Sandford was convicted of causing death at sea and served nearly seven years in the Federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia. Although the Shiloh community ended shortly after his release, Sandford continued to lead his followers while in strict seclusion until his death in March 1948.

Most of the Shiloh complex is gone today. However, The Kingdom still maintains a headquarters, now located in Dublin, New Hampshire, and has approximately 2,000 members nationwide.

Scope and Content Note

This collection consists primarily of newspaper articles from the Lewiston Evening Journal and The New York Times from 1895-1977 (bulk 1895-1920), as well as a few miscellaneous items, dealing with the Kingdom movement and the Shiloh complex. These items were compiled by William C. Hiss, who used the materials to write his doctorate dissertation in philosophy at Tufts University. Completed in April 1978, the title of the dissertation is "Shiloh: Frank W. Sandford and the Kingdom: 1893-1948." A copy of the dissertation is available in the Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library.

Organization and Arrangement

Clippings are arranged in chronological order.

Administrative Information

Publication Information

 Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library

70 Campus Avenue
Lewiston, Maine, 04240

Access Restrictions

The collection is open for research.

Use Restrictions

The collection is the physical property of Edmund S. Muskie Archives and Special Collections Library. Bates College holds literary rights only for material created by College personnel working on official behalf of the College, or for material which was given to the College with such rights specifically assigned. For all other material, literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. Researchers are responsible for obtaining permission from rights holders for publication or other purposes that exceed fair use.

Acquisition and Custody Information

Gift of William C. Hiss (Bates 1966), Sept. 1982. Accession No.: xx-050.

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Related Materials

Controlled Access Headings

Geographic Name(s)

  • Shiloh (Me.)--History

Personal Name(s)

  • Hiss, William C.--Archives
  • Sandford, Frank W., 1862-1948


  • Cults--Maine--Shiloh

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Collection Inventory


"A Great Baptism." July 8, 1895   

"God's House and Fifteen Apostles." June 20, 1896   

"The Marble Cornerstone." July 6, 1897   

"Beulah Hill's Prophet Baby." February 15, 1897   

"The Temple Is Up." February 27, 1897   

Untitled. June 7, 1897   

"Beulah In Glory." July 3, 1897   

Untitled (New York Times). July 7, 1897   

"Cash On The Nail." November 25, 1897   

"Mr. Sandford's Corner Stone." December 24, 1897   

"Mr. Sandford's Latest." December 27, 1897   

"Beulah Hill Is Minus Sandford." May 21, 1898   

"Chief Priest Back From Jerusalem." August 24, 1898   

"Events At Shiloh." March 16, 1899   

"A Great Day At Shiloh." March 17, 1899   

"But Thirty Seconds To Spare." March 20, 1899   

"Now Levant Is Ashamed." June 7, 1899   

"The Holy Ghost Doctrine." June 8, 1899   

"Prospect That None of the Levant Mob Will Be Brought to Justice." June 8, 1899   

Untitled. June 9, 1899   

"Leaves It All to God." July 18, 1899   

"At Shiloh's Mount The Faithful Rally." July 22, 1899   

"Shiloh's Gates." August 12, 1899   

"Shiloh's Eager Race." August 15, 1899   

"Shiloh's Miracle Dedicated." August 18, 1899   

"New Faith Cure Society." August 18, 1899   

"Stories From Shiloh's Day of Jubilee." August 19, 1899   

"Strange Scenes at Shiloh." August 19, 1899   

"Rev. Mr. Sandford's Receipts." August 21, 1899   

"Holy Ghost Camp Outrage." August 23, 1899   

"A Devil In Her." August 24, 1899   

"Allegations Made That The Sick Are Neglected And No Physician At Hand." August 25, 1899   

Letter from a clergyman to the editor of the NY Times. August 25, 1899   

"The Dedication of the Temple of the Living God at Shiloh, Durham, ME." August 26, 1899   

"Shiloh's Miracle." November 29, 1899   

"Why and How Olive Mills was Raised From the Dead." December 16, 1899   

"Another View of Shiloh." December 28, 1899   

"Exodus of the Seventy From Shiloh's Temple." January 6, 1900   

"Evangelist Sandford Will Depart From Shiloh." January 27, 1900   

"From Many Maine Towns." March 16, 1900   

"The Minister's Institute." Spetember 7, 1900   

"'Gush!' Cried Dr. Baker." September 26, 1900   

"The Taxes On Shiloh." October 17, 1900   

"New Jersey Converts Go to Shiloh, ME to Get 'Cured' - Why One Failed." November 18, 1900   

"Money For Shiloh." December 12, 1900   

Sandford Gospel - Latest Proposition of Organizer of Shiloh and the Crusade. April 13, 1901   

"Shiloh's Convention." April 15, 1901   

"Sandfordism - A Great Meeting on the Hill of Shiloh in Durham." June 17, 1901   

"Holy Ghost and Us Society-Audience Three Women and Three Reporters at the First Evangelization Meeting In Brooklyn." November 13, 1901   

"'Holy Ghost and Us' Converts Baptized." November 14, 1901   

"Many Converts Immersed in the Bay Not Found in the Directory as Residents of Brooklyn." November 15, 1901   

"Mr. Sandford Will Preside - The Great 'Shiloh' Meetings to Open Sunday in Auburn and Continue 10 Days." November 23, 1901   

"'Elijah Is Here' - Rev. F. W. Sandford's Latest Prophecy at the Auburn Temple." November 25, 1901   

"Spirit of Elijah." November 27, 1901   

"Death of Victim of the Holy Ghost and Us Band." December 14, 1901   

"Funeral Services of Mrs. Mary J. Sandford Held To-day." July 12, 1902   

Mr. Sandford Off For Europe Next Week.' July 25, 1092   

"Prayer Failed to Save Her." January 10, 1903   

"The Theology of Literalism." September 26, 1903   

"Inside Story of Sandfordism and Shiloh." September 26, 1903   

"Mr. Harriman's Statement." September 26, 1903   

"The Bill of Particulars." September 26, 1903   

"Fasting of Little Children." September 26, 1903   

"The Holy Ghost and Us." October 1, 1903   

"They Discuss Shiloh." October 12, 1903   

"Pierson Not Now at Shiloh." October 16, 1903   

"God to 'Kingdom' - So Goes Shiloh." January 18, 1904   

"At the Supreme Court, First Jury Trial On." January 21, 1904   

"Charge Is Manslaughter." January 23, 1904   

"He Sticks to Sandford." January 27, 1904   

"The Trial of Rev. F.W. Sandford, For Cruelty to His Child." February 3, 1904   

"Judge Savage's Charge in Sandford Case." February 4, 1904   

"Manslaughter Charge Now!" February 4, 1904   

"Sandford Manslaugher Case Goes to Jury Tonight." February 5, 1904   

"The Jury Reports Disagreement." February 6, 1904   

"Judge Savage's Charge: In the Sandford Case." February 10, 1904   

"Not Only Is Elijah Here, But His Fellow - Moses." March 29, 1904   

"Shiloh School is 'Supernatural.'" March 31, 1904   

"Another $5,000 Suit: Against Sandford, Elijah." April 13, 1904   

"The Sandford Suit, of Recent Date, Not Old." April 14, 1904   

"Is Shiloh Changing Front? Are Its Farms to be Tilled." April 19, 1904   

"Rev. Frank W. Sandford To Build an Electric Road." April 24, 1904   

"Sandford Will Build Shoe Factory at Shiloh." April 30, 1904   

"At the Supreme Court; The Sandford Case Again." May 2, 1904   

"Sandford Trial Begins in Franklin S.J. Court." May 24, 1904   

"N.H. Harriman Testifies - He Is the Chief Witness in the Sandford Manslaughter Case To-day." May 25, 1904   

"Both Sides Stubbornly Contesting Each Point." May 25, 1904   

"Defense Closed at 10:30 AM." May 26, 1904   

"Sandford Guilty of Manslaughter." May 27, 1904   

"Sandford Files Exceptions: Manslaughter-Law Court." June 25, 1904   

"Sandford Tells Disciples. Result of Recent Trials." June 25, 1904   

"The Fourth At Shiloh." July 2, 1094   

"Invited to Leave Town - Shilohites Given Their Choice Between This and a Coat of Tar and Feathers." July 14, 1904   

"Neighbors Save a Fanatic." July 17, 1904   

"Free to the Saints Convention at Shiloh." July 20, 1904   

"The Arrival of 150 Missionaries at Shiloh." August 13, 1904   

"Death of Shiloh Disciples." October 15, 1904   

"Down Comes Tabernacle: 'Holy Ghost in Auburn.'" October 17, 1904   

"A Tacoma Woman Tells of Life in Shiloh." October 21, 1904   

"How They Came to Shiloh." October 28, 1904   

"Victor Barton's Untimely Death." November 12, 1904   

"He Follows Sandfordism: Father Petitions for Guardian." November 17, 1904   

"Jean Stevens's Letter." November 26, 1094   

"They Returned the Box: A Story of Shilohism." November 30, 1904   

"'Twenty Days in Hell': A Shiloh Experience." December 3, 1904   

"Mr. Sandford's Letter to Mrs. E.M. Leger." December 10, 1904   

"The Sandford Cruelty Case." December 14, 1904   

"'I Am Sandford's Friend': Judge Coolidge's Protest." December 21, 1904   

"Big Haul for Shiloh." December 27, 1904   

"Court Rules For Sandford." January 3, 1905   

"The Courts and Shiloh; A Case Like C.F. Dunlap's." January 7, 1905   

"Struggling At Court For a Little Child." January 11, 1905   

"Hearing at Auburn To-day." January 12, 1905   

"Grandfather Wins Against Shiloh." January 17, 1905   

Writ Still Holds." April 21, 1905   

"Racer to be Gospel Ship." April 21, 1905   

"No Shilohites Were Present." April 22, 1905   

"Durhamites Turn Down Shilohites." April 24, 1905   

"Shiloh's Schools." May 2, 1905   

"A St. John's, N.B., Newspaper Describes Rev. Sandford's Yacht." May 5, 1905   

"Shiloh and Dunlaps: Erlan Dunlap's Case Again." May 12, 1905   

"Grandfather Dunlap Gets Boy." May 12, 1905   

"Motherhood Minstrels Given at Bowdoinham." May 13, 1905   

"The Lord Helps Those Who Help Themselves." May 27, 1905   

"Rev. Mr. Sandford's First Interview." June 3, 1905   

"Coronet Collides With Wanderer." June 4, 1905   

"Left Freeport Sunday Before His People Arrived." June 7, 1905   

"Shiloh Bends to the Strong Hand of the Law." June 10, 1905   

"Miss Harriman Dead." August 16, 1906   

"Shiloh - A Tragedy and Not a Joke." October 27, 1906   

"Maine Aroused Over Shiloh Story." October 29, 1906   

"Petition Not Yet in Circulation." October 30, 1906   

"Shiloh's Horses and Cattle Look Well Fed." October 30, 1906   

"Shiloh, the Fanatics, and Others." October 31, 1906   

"Shiloh Wide Open for the County Attorney." November 1, 1906   

"The Problem of Shiloh." November 1, 1906   

"Lonely Women of Shilohism." November 2, 1906   

"Governor Cobb Discusses Shiloh." November 2, 1906   

"'Clouds of Dust' In Public Eyes." November 3, 1906   

"His Old Shoes In Prayer Turret." November 3, 1906   

"Letter On Shiloh to Governor Cobb." November 8, 1906   

"Were Shut Out From Shiloh." November 9, 1906   

"Sandford Rules With Iron Hand." November 15, 1906   

"'Is Mr. Sandford a Paranoiac?' Opinion of Harvard Alienist." November 17, 1906   

"Sandford Is Defended By a Friend of the Work." November 24, 1906   

"Ex-Shiloh Man Talks." July 20, 1907   

"A Child's View of Life at Shiloh." January 16, 1908   

"The Man Who Heard Voices." February 15, 1908   

"He Saw Spirits at Shiloh; Whole Room Full of Them." November 2, 1908   

"Interview With F.W.S. at Rockland." August 31, 1909   

"Sandford Fought Sea-Elephants." October 9, 1909   

"Sandford Tells of His Plans." May 19, 1910   

"Habeas Corpus Writ Issued." June 6, 1910   

"Money From Maine." June 6, 1910   

"Recalls Case of May Phelps." June 6, 1910   

"That Is News To Me." June 6, 1910   

"For Her 'Rebellion.'" June 6, 1910   

"Glad of Her Freedom." June 6, 1910   

"Mrs. Whitaker Is Freed from Sandford's Kingdom." June 8, 1910   

"Rev. A.A. Whitaker Did Not See His Children." June 9, 1910   

"Girl Renamed True to Shiloh." June 11, 1910   

"Sarah Joseph Quits Sandford." September 3, 1910   

"Halifax Paper Says Kingdom Too Damaged to Repair." September 20, 1910   

"Gave Estate to Kingdom." December 14, 1910   

"Call the Coronet 'Sea Beggar.'" October 3, 1911   

"Badly Battered, The Coronet Reaches Portland." October 21, 1911   

"Seven Died At Sea of Scurvy." October 21, 1911   

"The Shilohites Are Disembarking." October 23, 1911   

"A Restaining Hand Is Needed." October 23, 1911   

"The Children Ordered Ashore." October 24, 1911   

"Sandford Took Turn at Pumps." October 24, 1911   

"Little Children Pray For Bread." October 24, 1911   

"The Return of the Sandford Pilgrims." October 24, 1911   

"Sandford and Other Prophets." October 25, 1911   

"Sandford Again Under Arrest." October 25, 1911   

"Sandford Held In $5,000 Bonds." October 26, 1911   

"Shiloh Leaders Refused to Let Her See Her Sick Son." October 26, 1911   

"Shilohite Offers His Roosters." October 26, 1911   

"When Sandford Was the 'Master.'" October 28, 1911   

"'For Months Were On Short Rations and Am Hungry All the Time' Writes Ralph Paine." October 30, 1911   

"Sandford, Man of Silence." October 31, 1911   

"Sandford Told His Wife to 'Shut Up.'" November 1, 1911   

"Sandford Held in $10,000 Bonds." November 2, 1911   

"Mother Wants to Leave 'Kingdom.'" November 6, 1911   

"Children's Protective Society Trying to Get Custody of Ralph Paine." November 8, 1911   

"A Bunch of Grafters." November 13, 1911   

"Sandford Honest In His Belief That Faith Saved the Coronet." November 14, 1911   

"Shiloh Agitation Recalls Fate of Elder Higgins." November 18, 1911   

"No Guardian For Paine." November 24, 1911   

"Sandford Witness Is Critically Ill." December 4, 1911   

"Rev. Frank W. Sandford Indicted At Portland On Six Different Counts." December 8, 1911   

"Sandford 'Guilty' Says the Jury." December 9, 1911   

"Shiloh's Elders Holding Special Session Today." December 11, 1911   

"Expect Money, New Converts." December 11, 1911   

"Sandford Took His Only Chance." December 11, 1911   

"Alienists Are At the Hilltop." December 14, 1911   

"Holland Leader At Shiloh Hilltop." December 15, 1911   

"Shilohites Confidently Await Revelation to Free 'Elijah' Sandford." December 17, 1911   

"Rev. Frank W. Sandford Given Ten Years at the Federal Prison, Atlanta." December 18, 1911   

"Sandford Leaves For Atlanta." December 19, 1911   

"Chief Sam and Eight Followers." March 11, 1914   

"'Back to Africa' Ship Arrives With Chief Sam." June 19, 1914   

"Negroes to Christen Africa-Bound Vessel." July 5, 1914   

"Negroes Go Back to Africa Aboard Liberia." August 21, 1914   

"Does Shiloh Face Financial Crisis?" January 12, 1916   

"William Bailey Leaves Shiloh." January 19, 1916   

"All of Sandford's Children Have Marked Individuality." January 22, 1916   

"Sandford Writes From His Cell." February 8, 1916   

"Rev. Sandford Talks With Lewiston and Auburn Friend at Atlanta Prison." May 19, 1917   

Rev. Frank W. Sandford 'Swept Up the Hill of the Lord in Triumph.'" September 16, 1918   

"Deborah Sandford Has Left Shiloh." September 20, 1918   

"Almost Starved at the Shiloh Colony." February 21, 1920   

"Children Famished Horses Worked to Bone, Shiloh Report." March 5, 1920   

"Shiloh, City of Mystery and Home of Religious Devotion, Will Soon Be No More." May 14, 1920   

"The Passing of Shiloh." May 15, 1920   

"Shiloh Has Passed From Control of 'The Kingdom.'" December 5, 1921   

"Shiloh and 'The Hill-Top' The Day After." February 24, 1923   

"Tho Gates Open, Shiloh Leader Is No Longer at Durham Temple." April 8, 1939   

"Visit With Shiloh Leader Leaves Reporter Profoundly Impressed." March 30, 1946   

"Rare Shiloh Magazine, Published Years Ago, Holds Interest Today." July 6, 1946   

"Portland Waterfront Buzzing Again Over Activities On Mystery Schooner." October 30, 1947   

"Tongues Wag As Shiloh Cult's Coronet Makes Trip In Harbor." October 31, 1947   

"Unusual Activity On Coronet Heightens Waterfront Mystery." November 12, 1947   

"Sandford Death News Released." April 24, 1948   

"Cult Withholds Details of Death." April 24, 1948   

"Kingdom, Inc., To Carry On Despite Death of Founder." April 26, 1948   

"Shiloh Stands Apart From the World of Men." February 13, 1951   

"Sandford's Messianic Fervor Key to Rise and Fall of Shiloh." February 14, 1951   

"Shiloh Disciples Build Home In Answer to Minister's Prayer." February 15, 1951   

"Delapidated Dormitories At Shiloh Being Razed." December 23, 1952   

"Mystery About Sect Nothing More Than Deep Faith In Bible's Word." April 20, 1962   

"The Kingdom Is Alive And Well In Maine." July 6, 1969   

"The Tragic Voyage of the Shiloh Schooner Coronet." May, 1974   

"Shiloh An Impressive Sight On Maine Countryside." January 8, 1977