The material on this page is from the 1997-98 catalog and may be out of date. Please check the current year's catalog for current information.



Professors Leamon, Cole, Hirai, Grafflin, Jones, Hochstadt, Chair, and Tobin; Associate Professors Carignan and Creighton (on leave, winter semester); Assistant Professors Chomsky (on leave, 1997-1998) and Jensen; Mr. Horst and Mr. Beam

History has been defined as the collective memory of things said and done, arranged in a meaningful pattern. Such knowledge of the past supplies context, perspective, and clarity in a diverse and changing world. The members of the history department offer widely different views of the history of a broad variety of peoples, yet they agree that the study of the past provides, for each of us, meaning in the present and informed choices for the future.

The study of history teaches an appreciation of both change and continuity, the critical examination of evidence, the construction of arguments, and the articulation of conclusions. In addition to teaching and to graduate studies in history and law, majors find careers in related fields, such as work in museums and archives, public service, indeed, any profession requiring skills of research, analysis, and expression.

Courses in the history department are designed to be taken in sequence: first, introductory survey courses (100-level), then more specialized intermediate courses (200- and 300-level), and ultimately advanced seminars (390). While nonmajors are welcomed in any history courses, all students are encouraged to begin their study of history with 100-level courses.

Major requirements. Majors must complete at least nine courses and the mandatory Short Term unit, described below or eight courses, the mandatory Short Term, and one other Short Term unit. Majors choose a primary concentration from one of the following five fields: East Asia, Latin America, Europe, the United States, and premodern history. The primary concentration includes six courses focused on the chosen field ‹ one 100-level course, four 200- or 300-level courses (including at least one 390 seminar), and a senior thesis (History 457 or 458).

Majors must take two courses from any one of the three following fields: East Asia, Latin America, or premodern history. Students whose primary concentration is in one of these three fields must take two courses in any other field. Courses that are listed in two fields may be counted in either field, but not in both.

Mandatory Short Term unit. All history majors must complete History s40, Introduction to Historical Methods, which focuses on critical analysis, research skills, and historiography. Students are strongly advised to do so no later than the end of their sophomore year, and must do so by the end of their junior year. This requirement is a prerequisite for registering for the senior thesis. Majors must present to the Department Chair an acceptable plan for completing this requirement before being approved for study abroad in their junior year.

Senior thesis. All senior history majors write a thesis in the fall or winter semester (History 457 or 458). Thesis writing develops the skills learned in earlier classes and demonstrates the ability to work independently as a historian. To ensure that students have adequate background knowledge of their topic, the Department recommends that a senior thesis grow out of an existing paper. The student should bring this paper to the thesis advisor when initially discussing the subject of the thesis. This works best when the paper has been written for a Junior-Senior Seminar (History 390), but students may also use papers written for 200-level courses. A major planning a fall thesis must consult with a thesis advisor in the previous spring; those planning winter theses must consult with thesis advisors in the fall of the senior year.

Departmental honors. The honors program in history focuses on a major research project written during both semesters of the senior year (History 457 and 458), allowing more time for the maturation of a satisfying project. This also helps to indicate the competence, discipline, and independence sought by graduate schools and potential employers alike. The candidate presents the two-semester, double-credit thesis to a panel of professional readers. This increases the required number of history courses and units for an honors major to eleven. For honors students, there is also a foreign language requirement of competence at the intermediate level (most commonly met by satisfactorily completing the fourth semester of college language). This level of study should be regarded as the bare minimum for students considering graduate work in history.

Successful completion of an honors major requires imagination, critical judgment, and good writing. Therefore the history department will invite majors with exceptional academic records to consider the honors program. Invitees will be informed toward the end of their junior year. Any invitee who intends to pursue an honors major must submit a preliminary proposal, defining the topic and providing a basic annotated bibliography, to their advisor by September 1 of the senior year.

External credits. Majors must take a minimum of six history courses and units from Bates faculty members. This means that students may use a maximum of four credits taken elsewhere (transfer or study-abroad courses) toward the major requirements. Advanced Placement credits, awarded for a score of four or five on the relevant examination, may count toward overall college graduation requirements, but do not count toward the history major.

Students considering graduate study in history should achieve at least a two-year proficiency in a foreign language, and should take some work in American and modern European history prior to taking the Graduate Record Examination.

100. Introduction to the Ancient World.
This course introduces the Greco-Roman world and serves as a useful basis for 200- or 300-level courses in classical civilization and ancient history. Within a general chronological framework, students consider the ancient world under a series of headings: religion, philosophy, art, education, literature, social life, politics, and law. The survey begins with Bronze Age Crete and Mycenae and ends in the first century B.C., as Rome makes her presence felt in the Mediterranean and moves toward empire. This course is the same as Classics 100. (premodern) D. O'Higgins.

102. Medieval Europe. A study of the genesis and development of western European civilization from the later Roman Empire in A.D. 300 to the crisis and collapse of the medieval world in the fourteenth century. Attention centers around the political, social, economic, and cultural aspects of an evolving Western medieval civilization. (premodern) M. Jones.

104. Europe, 1789 to the Present. An introduction to modern European history. The course analyzes major events, such as the French Revolution, the development of capitalism, and the two World Wars. It also introduces students to the different kinds of evidence used by historians: original documents, books written by historians, novels, and films. Themes that run throughout the course are class conflict, gender relations, and racial conflict as expressed through imperialism. E. Tobin.

140. Origins of the New Nation, 1500-1820. The first course in a three-course sequence which presents the American experience from a deliberately interpretive point of view. The current theme is the continuous redefinition of liberty through the various stages of American development. The course employs primary and secondary sources, lectures, and discussion to examine political, social, economic, and cultural dimensions of change and continuity and contrasts between ideals and reality. J. Leamon.

141. America in the Nineteenth Century. The second course in a three-course sequence which presents the American experience from a deliberately interpretive point of view. The current theme is the continuous redefinition of liberty through the various stages of American development. The course employs primary and secondary sources, lectures, and discussion to examine political, social, economic, and cultural dimensions of change and continuity and contrasts between ideals and reality. M. Creighton.

142. The Republic, Industrial and Imperial, 1890-1998. The third course in a three-course sequence which presents the American experience from a deliberately interpretive point of view. The current theme is the continuous redefinition of liberty through the various stages of American development. The course employs primary and secondary sources, lectures, and discussion to examine political, social, economic, and cultural dimensions of change and continuity and contrasts between ideals and reality. H. Jensen.

144. The Social History of the Civil War. This course examines the many causes and courses of the Civil War in American historiography, but focuses on current interpretations that stress conflicts over issues of race, gender, class, and sexuality. The military campaigns of the War itself receive consideration, but particularly in their social dimensions. The contours of slave and planter culture are covered in some detail, and the Confederate myth of the "Lost Cause" and the enduring debate over southern "difference" are examined in period literature, historical accounts, and contemporary film. Prerequisite(s): History 141. Not open to students who have received credit for History 247. M. Creighton.

171. East Asian Civilizations: China. An overview of Chinese civilization from the god-kings of the second millennium and the emergence of the Confucian familial state in the first millennium B.C.E., through the expansion of the hybrid Sino foreign empires, to the revolutionary transformation of Chinese society by internal and external pressures in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (East Asian, premodern) D. Grafflin.

172. East Asian Civilizations: Japan. The society and politics of Japan from the earliest times to the wars of the twentieth century. (East Asian, premodern) A. Hirai.

181. Latin America. A survey of the colonial period and the winning of independence, and the domestic development of the principal Latin American countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Designed to introduce the subject to the American student. (Latin American) Staff.

201. Greek Civilization. This course considers: 1) the archaic civilization of Homer and Pindar, poets celebrating the heroes of an aristocratic and personal world; 2) the classical civilization of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes, and Thucydides, the dramatists and historian of a democratic and political Athens; 3) the synthesis of Plato, celebrating the hero Socrates and attempting to preserve and promote aristocratic values in a political world. Open to first-year students. (premodern) J. Cole.

202. Herodotus and Thucydides: Storytelling and Analytical Intelligence. This course considers the literary achievement and the historical subject matter of the two preeminent Greek historians. In the first quarter of the course, the entire class reads the work of the great storyteller, Herodotus, from start to finish; in the second, individual students consider particular problems in historical analysis related to his subject, the Persian Wars. In the third quarter, the class reads the contrasting work of Thucydides, also from start to finish; in the fourth, individual students consider particular problems related to his subject, the Peloponnesian War. Open to first-year students. (premodern) J. Cole.

207. The Roman World and Roman Britain. The Roman Empire is famous for its decline and fall. Stretching from the Euphrates to the Atlantic, however, this remarkable multiethnic empire persisted for five hundred years. Its story is a fascinating example of what Theodore Mommsen tagged the moral problem of "the struggle of necessity and liberty." This course is a study of the unifying and fragmenting forces at work on the social, economic, and political structures of the Roman imperial world. Key themes include the western provinces and Roman Britain, the effects of Romanization on conquered peoples, and the rise of Christianity. The survey begins with the reign of Augustus and concludes with the barbarian invasions of the fifth century. Open to first-year students. (premodern) Staff.

208. Introduction to Medieval Archeology. Archeology is an important tool for investigating medieval societies unrecorded in documents and art. This course introduces archeological methods and recent archeological studies of urban and rural life in Northwestern Europe from 1000 to 1500 A.D. Topics such as early trade, social roles of churches and monastic communities, ethnicity in towns, and peasant economy are discussed, illustrated by slide presentations. Today, teams of historians, social scientists, and physical scientists are researching historical and biocultural processes of the Middle Ages, including the Norse settlement of the North Atlantic. The course emphasizes these new, interdisciplinary approaches. This course is the same as Classical and Medieval Studies 208 and Anthropology 208. Open to first-year students. (premodern) G. Bigelow.

221. History of Russia, 1762-1917. Despite a backward political and social structure, Russia has been a world power since the eighteenth century. This course considers how Russia's rulers from Catherine the Great to Nicholas II tried to prevent the forces of Western ideas and industrialization from weakening their power, causing radical intellectuals, peasants, and workers to join together in a unique revolutionary movement. The course ends with a study of the successful overthrow of the government in 1917 and the creation of a Bolshevik state. Recommended background: History 104. S. Hochstadt.

222. History of the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. The history of the Soviet Union has turned out differently from the hopes of the revolutionaries in 1917. Beginning with an analysis of the Revolution and its aftermath, this course studies the growth of the Bolshevik-Communist government under Lenin, the attempts to create a workers' state and culture in the 1920s, the transformation of state and society under Stalin, the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower after 1945, and the dissolution of the USSR in the 1990s. Gender and class are used as important categories of analysis. Recommended background: History 104. S. Hochstadt.

223. The French Enlightenment. The eighteenth-century men of letters who thought of themselves as "Philosophers" broke radically from traditional and previously authoritative ideas, values, and beliefs. Simplifying outrageously, they challenged the sovereignty of the Christian Faith, advocating instead a cultural relativism, a rational utilitarianism, and a liberal rehabilitation of human nature. Their opponents have always thought that this was for them to put the dear self in the place of God; their followers think that this makes them the precursors of modernity. The course centers on the works of five great figures: Descartes, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot. All assigned reading is in English; research projects can be defined to suit the capacities and interests of French majors. This course is similar to French 353. Not open to students who have taken French 353. Open to first-year students. J. Cole.

224. The Old Regime and the Revolution in France. This course devotes approximately equal time to each of three periods and problems: 1) the pre-Revolutionary eighteenth century and its most important social, political, and religious structures; 2) the more "moderate" Revolution of 1789, which destroyed the old order of throne and altar, nobles and commoners, in attempting to create a new order based on liberty and equality; 3) the more "radical" Revolution that climaxed in the Year II (1793-1794) without managing to secure the "blessings of liberty" ‹ and equality ‹ to such groups as women and blacks. Open to first-year students. J. Cole.

226. Modern Germany. This course covers Germany's rise to power in the nineteenth century through revolution, rapid industrialization, and war, and investigates the consequences: governments dominated by conservative aristocrats, a hostile working class demanding socialism, an authoritarian political tradition, two World Wars, and Nazism. The course then considers East Germany's and West Germany's different paths to more stable societies. Prerequisite(s): History 104 or 221 or 222. E. Tobin.

227. Germany in the Era of the Two World Wars. Between 1914 and 1945, Germany's diplomacy and territorial ambitions precipitated two World Wars, with terrible consequences for soldiers and civilians; during the same time period Germany experienced one socialist revolution, an experiment in democracy, and a racist dictatorship. Between the Wars, German dramatic and visual artists were among the most exciting in Europe. This course examines Germany during this period of extraordinary cultural and political ferment, seeking to understand its causes and its legacy for us today. Recommended background: one history course. E. Tobin.

229. The Holocaust in History: The Genocide of European Jews. No event has shocked Western sensibility as much as the mass murder of European Jews by Nazis and their collaborators. How could Europeans, who considered themselves the most highly civilized people on earth, have engaged in premeditated genocide? This course begins by contrasting the rich culture of European Jews around 1900 with the rise of modern anti-Semitism. The gradual escalation of Nazi persecution is the focus of the course, culminating in concentration camps and mass murder. The varied reactions of Jews and non-Jews in Europe and America are a central subject. The question of the Holocaust's uniqueness is discussed, as well as its continuing effects on European, Jewish, and Middle Eastern politics. Recommended background: History 104 or 226 or 227. S. Hochstadt.

240. Colonial New England, 1660-1763. This one hundred-year period in New England's history is filled with crises: a new imperial system, the Glorious Revolution in England, accompanied by rebellions in the colonies, wars against the Indians, the French, and ‹ in Massachusetts ‹ against the Devil. Less dramatic but equally traumatic were economic and social changes that struck at the heart of Puritan self-confidence. By the end of this era, however, New England had regained a new self-image and revived sense of "mission" as a chosen people. Recommended background: History 140. (premodern) J. Leamon.

241. The Age of the American Revolution, 1763-1789. A study of the Revolution from its origins as a protest movement to one seeking independence from Britain. The course examines differences among Americans over the meaning of the Revolution and over the nature of society in the new republic. The debates over state and national constitutions help to illustrate these differences. The course considers the significance of the Revolution for Americans and for Europeans as well. Recommended background: History 140.
J. Leamon.

243. African American History. Blacks in this country have been described as both "omni-Americans" and a distinctive cultural "nation within a nation." The course explores this apparent paradox using primary and interpretive sources, including oral and written biography, music, fiction, and social history. It examines key issues, recurrent themes, conflicting strategies, and influential personalities in the African American's quest for freedom and security. It surveys black American history from seventeenth-century African roots to present problems remaining in building an egalitarian, multiracial society for the future. Recommended background: History 140 or 141 or 142. Open to first-year students. H. Jensen.

261. American Protest in the Twentieth Century. This course examines the persistent and uniquely American impetus toward individual liberty, equality, and collective moral reform by studying a variety of protest movements and representative dissenters from Emma Goldman to Jesse Jackson. It consequently investigates the development and interplay of American variants of anarchism, socialism, pacifism, syndicalism, anticommunism, racial egalitarianism, feminism, and radical environmentalism and their influences ‹ intended and fortuitous ‹ upon the larger society. Recommended background: History 142.
H. Jensen.

274. China in Revolution. Modern China's century of revolutions, from the disintegration of the traditional empire in the late nineteenth century, through the twentieth-century attempts at reconstruction, to the tenuous stability of the post-Maoist regime. Recommended background: History 171. (East Asian) D. Grafflin.

275. The Emergence of Modern Japan. The transfiguration of Japan since 1868 and the radical ambiguity of its position as agent, opponent, and mediator of the forces of modernization in East Asia. Recommended background: History 172. (East Asian) A. Hirai.

276. Japan Since 1945 Through Film and Literature. This is a course in Japanese history since World War II. A brief survey of Japan's prewar history is followed by a detailed analysis of postwar developments. The focus is on political institutions and processes and economic development, but these aspects of postwar Japan are examined in their social, cultural, and international context. Open to first-year students. (East Asian) A. Hirai.

281. Social History of Central America. An analysis of the conflicts shaping Central American society from the conquest to the present. Topics include conquest, enslavement and resistance in the colonial period, the role of the church, new struggles over land and labor in the nineteenth century, and revolutionary movements in the twentieth. The final unit on the Nicaraguan revolution looks at how it highlights so many of Central America's historical problems which have yet to be resolved. Recommended background: History 181. Open to first-year students. (Latin American) Staff.

282. Gender in Latin American History. This course examines the social construction of gender in Latin American history. We study concepts that have structured Latin American beliefs about gender, including concepts of honor and shame, and of machismo and marianismo, and examine issues of gender relations and sexuality. We ask how beliefs about gender and gender roles relate to social structures including race, class and political structures, how beliefs about gender and gender roles have changed over time, and how beliefs about gender and gender roles differ (or are the same) in the United States and Latin America. Recommended background: History 181. (Latin American) Staff.

283. Latinos in the United States. This course examines the history of the different Latino populations in the present-day United States. We begin with the nineteenth-century wars that brought large portions of Mexico under Unites States control, and go on to study the major waves of migration to the United States from Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America. What conditions in the sending countries, and what relations between the sending countries and the United States, prompted the migrations? How have different immigrant groups' experiences in the United States differed? Readings focus on different aspects of Latino life including work, community, family, and political activism, and include novels and autobiographies. Recommended background: History 141 or 142 or 181. Open to first-year students. Staff.

342. The United States in the Sixties and Seventies. This course studies the United States in the turbulent decades of the 1960s and 1970s. While students examine significant developments in American culture and society, domestic politics, and foreign policy, the focus of their work is research based on the use of primary sources in the Edmund S. Muskie Archives and related collections. Thus, it is more generally an apprenticeship in the historian's craft. Prerequisite(s): History 142. Enrollment limited to 15. C. Beam.

349. Black America in the Twentieth Century. A study of selected topics dealing with the black experience in the twentieth century. Such areas as labor, politics, education, and literature are considered. Written permission of the instructor is required. J. Carignan.

360. Independent Study. Independent study of selected topics by individual students. Periodic conferences and papers are required. Departmental permission is necessary prior to registration. Students are limited to one independent study per semester. Staff.

365. Special Topics. A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the Department. Staff.

374. Readings on China: Intellectual History. Emphasis on the formation of the secular intellectual tradition of the Chinese elite. Readings concentrate on primary works of outstanding importance. Willingness to engage in the close reading and discussion of a wide variety of philosophical materials is required, but no background in Asian studies is assumed. (East Asian, premodern) D. Grafflin.

390. Junior-Senior Seminars. These seminars provide opportunities for concentrated work on a particular theme, national experience, or methodology for advanced majors and non-majors alike. Junior and senior majors are encouraged to use these seminars to generate thesis topics.

390A. World War II in the Pacific. Social, political, and diplomatic history of and between the United States and Japan before and during the War. Western imperialism; Japanese aggression; the War and the Great Depression; biographies of President Roosevelt and Prince Konoe; oral history of women, children, and soldiers; atomic bombs; Tokyo War Crimes Trial; and other topics. Weekly discussion, occasional short written assignments; 15-20-page seminar paper. Enrollment limited to 15. (East Asian) A. Hirai.

390B. The Nixon Presidency. This course explores the presidency of Richard M. Nixon, one of the most controversial in modern U.S. history. Topics include, but are not limited to, Nixon's early political career; the Vietnam War and U.S. foreign policy; domestic policies; party politics including the 1972 election; the Watergate scandal; and the personalities and careers of his associates and opponents. Enrollment limited to 15.
C. Beam.

390C. Gender and the American Civil War. The American Civil War is traditionally viewed as a conflict over race relations, economic practice, political philosophy, and cultural divisions. This course takes advantage of new scholarship to examine the War from an additional perspective: that of gender. We look at how the causes of the War, the conduct of the War, and the War's legacy can be regarded as disagreements over manhood, womanhood, sexual identity and practice. The course also considers how diverse women affected the war's outcome. Students are expected to do a considerable amount of independent research, both individually and in groups. A research paper is also required. Enrollment limited to 15. Written permission of the instructor is required. M. Creighton.

390D. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Edward Gibbon's classic Decline and Fall is the most famous work of history written in English. We use it as an introduction to the problem of the collapse of complex, premodern societies and specifically the end of the Roman West. Changing historical explanations for the fall of Rome are a microcosm of Western historiography. We also explore basic questions on the nature of history and historians. Enrollment limited to 15. (premodern) M. Jones.

390E. Political Revolution and Cultural Expression. The American Revolution provides the focus for an examination of the ways in which revolutionary ideals are reflected in the art, literature, architecture, religion and morals of the age. The French and Russian revolutions provide comparative perspectives on the theme of revolution and cultural expression. A research paper is required. Prerequisite(s): History 140 or 241. Enrollment limited to 15. J. Leamon.

390F. The American West. Focusing in particular on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this course considers the changing cultural, economic, and social landscapes of the American West. Class discussion and readings pay special attention to the way that the West as an imaginary construct intersected with the West as a social "reality," and to the history of contact between Native Americans and whites. After completing an intensive overview of the subject, participants are expected to produce a carefully researched paper of substantial length. Enrollment limited to 15. M. Creighton.

390G. The United States in Vietnam, 1945-1975. This seminar explores the origins, evolution, and denouement of United States political and military intervention in Vietnam, which became a dominant and divisive issue in American politics in the 1960s and early 1970s. The objective of this course is to develop a coherent historical perspective on what became one of the costliest conflicts in U.S. history. Enrollment limited to 15. C. Beam.

390H. U.S. Relations with Latin America. This seminar examines various historical and contemporary perspectives on U.S. and Latin America relations. We read works by both U.S. and Latin American authors, some of whom laud and others of whom criticize U.S. policies toward Latin America. Students, working in groups, design and carry out research projects that focus on U.S. relations with an individual country in Latin America. The groups present their results in the form of a panel discussion, placing their research in the context of the various historical approaches discussed at the beginning of the semester. Enrollment limited to 15. (Latin American) Staff.

390I. Anglo-Saxon England. This seminar concentrates on Dark Age Britain, from the arrival of the Anglo Saxon invaders in the fifth century A.D. to the consolidation of England in the face of the Viking invasions in the ninth century. The field of study is a mystery wrapped in an enigma. Ignorance and obscurity offer one advantage to students: the sources for this period are so few that they may be mastered in a single semester. The course is designed to present typical kinds of early medieval evidence (saints' lives, chronicles, annals, charters, poetry, genealogy, archeology), introduce students to their potentials and difficulties, and then set a series of problems that requires application of these materials to gain an answer. The course culminates in a research paper. Enrollment limited to 15. (premodern) Staff.

390J. Laboring Classes, Dangerous Classes. Since the nineteenth century, sociologists and historians have worried about the connections between laboring classes and dangerous classes. Workers who did not follow the rules and expectations of established governments and of wealthier classes caused trouble, whether by crime, refusal to work, or outright resistance. This course looks at the ways in which European workers tried to deal with industrialization, from adaption to revolution. What united and what divided groups of workers? Which conditions encouraged accommodation and which encouraged resistance to employers? How did the experiences of female and male workers differ? We concentrate on the period between 1815 and 1920. Enrollment limited to 15. E. Tobin.

390K. Currents in Modern American Intellectual History. If the problems of delineating and constituting an American intellectual "tradition" have become more exasperating in the past few years, they are not new. Conflicting definitions of the inclusive or exclusive characteristics of that tradition and its significance to the development and maintenance of a strong multicultural democratic community have been at the heart of our civic conversation for most of this century. Armed with that insight, we explore a variety of influential primary sources ‹ social theory, historiography, biography, and literature ‹ by American thinkers whose distinction lies in their having thought long, hard, and critically about the nation's most pressing problems without regard to disciplinary bounds or personal consequences. We endeavor to balance close textual reading with a sensitivity to the individual quirks, social origins, and temporal contexts of representative thinkers from 1917 to the present. Enrollment limited to 15. H. Jensen.

390L. Shanghai, 1927-1937. The Nationalist government of the Republic of China had a single decade in power before full-scale Japanese invasion threw it on the defensive. One spot in particular where it had to prove its ability to govern a modern society and economy was the special Shanghai municipal zone. Scholarly attention in recent years has focused on the surviving archives of the British-controlled police force in the International Settlement. Students have the opportunity to evaluate recent scholarship and pursue their own projects in the microfilm edition of the archives. Recommended background: History 171 and 274. Enrollment limited to 15. (East Asian) D. Grafflin.

390M. Holocaust Memoirs: Gender/Memory. In this course we use close textual readings, discourse analysis, and scholarship on memory to think about Holocaust memoirs as sources of our knowledge about what camp inmates experienced at the hands of the Nazis, how inmates responded to Nazi actions, and how inmates interacted with each other. One of our principal concerns is thinking about potential gender differences. We look both at women's and men's experiences in the camps and also at the ways each has chosen to write about their experiences. Did the different kinds of socialization women received at home mean they behaved differently from men in the camps? To what extent do male and female survivors describe similar experiences differently? How should historians regard texts written from memory? Recommended background: coursework in either German history, Holocaust studies, or gender analysis. Enrollment limited to 15. E. Tobin.

390N. Vikings. The Vikings were the most feared and perhaps misunderstood people of their day. Savage raiders branded as the Antichrist by their Christian victims, the Vikings were also the most successful traders and explorers of the early Middle Ages. The Viking Age lasted for almost three centuries (800-1100 A.D.) and their world stretched from Russia to North America. Study of the myth and reality of Viking culture involves materials drawn from history, archeology, mythology, and literature. Prerequisite(s): History 102. Enrollment limited to 15. (premodern) M. Jones.

390P. Prelude to the Civil Rights Movement. This course explores the forgotten years of the civil rights movement, the seedtime of black protest and insurgency, from the New York Riot of 1900 to the Supreme Court's landmark desegregation decision in 1954. Emphasis is placed upon the development of protest techniques, conflicting organizational strategies of advance, leadership struggles, and the flowering of distinct and innovative cultural forms. Harlem, the cultural capital of black America, is examined as a paradigmatic case study of the effects of northern migration, urbanization, and proletarianization on America's bellwether minority. Enrollment limited to 15. H. Jensen.

457, 458. Senior Thesis. The research and writing of an extended essay in history, following the established practices of the discipline, under the guidance of a departmental supervisor. Students register for History 457 in the fall semester and for History 458 in the winter semester. History 457 or 458 is required of all majors. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both History 457 and 458. Staff.

Short Term Units

s16. Leadership Studies. Students review recent theories of leadership as presented by Gardner, Heifitz, and Burns. The unit emphasizes different perspectives on the nature of leadership drawn from other historical epochs, distinctive cultures, and different disciplines. Students spend three days each week associated with a leader in a local organization studying leadership and engaging in leadership activities and issues. Enrollment limited to 12. J. Carignan.

s17. The Several Sides of the Cold War. This unit reexamines the history of the Cold War in light of new evidence from Soviet, Chinese, German, and other sources. In addition to secondary material, students examine archival documents and memoirs (in translation) pertaining to such events as the division of Germany, the Korean War, the Sino-Soviet conflict, the building of the Berlin Wall, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The unit uses these cases to discuss crises bargaining and conflict resolution, the sources of misperception in international politics, and the interaction between foreign and domestic policy. This unit is the same as Political Science s17. Open to first-year students. J. Richter.

s18. The Cuban Revolution: Problems and Prospects. This unit examines the problems and prospects facing the Cuban Revolution in historical and cultural context. The first two weeks are spent on campus in intensive study of the Cuban Revolution. The second two weeks are spent in Cuba doing first-hand research and study of current issues in Cuba, and the last week is spent on campus doing oral and written evaluations of the problems raised by the unit. Issues include food and agriculture, health, economic crisis and change, arts and culture, women, and Cuban relations with the United States. This unit is offered simultaneously in English and Spanish. Recommended background: some knowledge of Spanish. This unit is the same as Spanish s18. Enrollment limited to 25. Written permission of the instructor is required. (Latin American) F. López.

s19. Origins of the Cuban Revolution. This unit examines the origins of revolution in Cuba during the period between the U.S. occupation of 1898-1902 and 1959, focusing on several areas: social and economic change as U.S. sugar corporations took over peasant lands, racial and ethnic tensions as white and Afro-Cubans competed with Jamaican and Haitian migrants for work during the harvest, and political struggles at the national level. We study three rebellions prior to 1959 and use the Cuban Revolution as a case study to explore different historiographical approaches to protest, rebellion, and revolution. Recommended background: History 181. (Latin American) Staff.

s21. Montaigne: Author, Subject, and Historical Figure. Montaigne is still honored as "the most civilized man of the sixteenth century." He was at once the author of a literary monument, the Essais, and also the subject of his own enterprise of self-study. We study these two "Montaignes," the man of letters as portraitist and the image of self that his written work portrayed. (premodern) J. Cole.

s24A. The Civil Rights Movement. Between 1954 and 1968, the civil rights movement rearranged the terrain and composition of American social relations, altered the domestic agenda of American politics, created a hopeful climate for change, unleashed hidden turbulences of racial nationalism and gender division, and broached still unanswered questions about the nation's uneven distribution of wealth. It enunciated the moral vocabulary of a generation. By critically examining primary documents, film, audio records, social history, and participant testimony, this unit seeks to deflate the mythology surrounding this subject and comprehend it as "living history" infused with new meaning for the present. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. H. Jensen.

s25. A Brief History of Korea. An overview of the history of Korea, starting from Ancient Korea, continuing through the Silla Kingdom, the Koryo Kingdom, and the Chosen Kingdom, ending with the annexation of Korea, the division of the peninsula during the Korean War, and a look at Korea today. Recommended background: History 171. Open to first-year students. (East Asian, premodern) D. Grafflin.

s25A. Japanese-American "Relocation" Camps. This unit examines the United States' policy of "relocating" Japanese Americans during World War II. It probes the connection between the racially prejudicial government policy ‹ the American version of Europe's concentration camps ‹ and the social and economic interests of the people involved in the formulation and execution of that policy. The unit concludes with a week-long field trip, visiting three relocation camps on the West Coast and in the Rocky Mountains. A. Hirai.

s26. Brazilian Slavery Through Documents. This unit studies slavery in Brazil ‹ Latin America's largest country, the one with the most slaves, and the one that retained the institution the longest ‹ taking advantage of an abundant collection of primary source material. Emphasis is on the different types of slavery, the social complex supporting the institution, slave resistance, abolition, and the long-term effects of slavery on Brazilian society. Recommended background: History 181. (Latin American) Staff.

s32. Performing Medieval Plays. Students read, research, and informally perform selections from the medieval English drama cycle, a series of plays which enact the medieval Christian understanding of history from Creation to Judgment Day. These plays, which are known for their earthy realism as well as their sometimes surprisingly comic approach to sacred story, were largely staged out-of-doors by fifteenth-century craft guilds. What do these plays tell us about the religious concerns of townsmen and townswomen? Why did the guilds sponsor the enactment of these plays? Were these plays only a reflection of popular piety? This unit offers students an opportunity to explore at first hand the relation between interpretation and performance and to examine late medieval piety from a lay, urban perspective. Prerequisite(s): one course in medieval literature or medieval history. This unit is the same as English s32. Enrollment limited to 25. A. Thompson.

s34. Historical Fiction. Students read two historical novels and collaborate to write their own work of historical fiction. They are presented with two specific contexts for their work: the French Revolution and the American Civil War. After working with historical source materials and two period novels, participants work together to produce a narrative composed of letters or journal entries. Each student contributes at least ten entries, with a minimum of twenty-five pages. This unit encourages interdisciplinary study and provides students with an opportunity for creative writing. Prerequisite(s): at least one course offered by the English or history departments. This unit is the same as English s34. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 20. Written permission of the instructor is required. L. Nayder.

s35. The Public Intellectual and the Making of Public Policy. The unit considers the history and role of the intellectual in the development of public policy in American democracy. The focus is on the place of the intellectual/activist in American politics as well as on key intellectuals who have taken activist positions, such as Jefferson, Emerson, and Thoreau, as well as more current figures such as Lippman, Nader, etc. The connection between the intellectual as theorist and activist (praxis) is at the center of this study. Two of the five weeks are in Washington, D.C., in internships and seminars with "public intellectuals." Prerequisite(s): a course in American history and a course in American politics or public policy. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 12. J. Carignan.

s40. Introduction to Historical Methods. This unit provides an intensive introduction to research skills, historical literature, and the principles and methods of historical critical analysis (historiography). The unit is team-taught to acquaint students with a variety of historical assumptions and methodologies ranging from the perception of history as fiction to the belief that history is the accumulation of objective data about an ascertainable past. This unit provides important preparation for the senior thesis. Recommended background: a college-level course in history. Required of all majors. Open to first-year students. Written permission of the instructor is required. Staff.

s42. Historical Archeology. This program combines a theoretical and practical introduction to historical archeology. Practical experience comes from excavating a seventeenth- or eighteenth-century site in Maine, from recording and interpreting artifacts and features, and from field trips to other archeological sites. Recommended background: History 240 and 241. Enrollment limited to 12. Written permission of the instructor is required. J. Leamon.

s50. Individual Research. Registration in this unit is granted by the Department only after the student has submitted a written proposal for a full-time research project to be completed during the Short Term and has secured the sponsorship of a member of the Department to direct the study and evaluate results. Students are limited to one individual research unit. Staff.
Students may choose to major in an established interdisciplinary program supported by faculty committees or to design an independent interdisciplinary major. Established programs include: African American studies, American cultural studies, biological chemistry, classical and medieval studies, environmental studies, neuroscience, and women's studies. Students should consult the directors of these programs for information about requirements and theses.

Students undertaking independent interdisciplinary majors should consult the section in the catalog on the Academic Program (see p. 13). Independent interdisciplinary majors are supported by the Committee on Curriculum and Calendar and students should consult the Committee Chair for information about requirements and theses. Thesis work may be designed departmentally or, where more appropriate, by the following interdisciplinary course:

457, 458. Interdisciplinary Senior Thesis.
Independent study and writing of a major research paper in the area of the student's interdisciplinary major, supervised by an appropriate faculty member. Students register for Interdisciplinary Senior Thesis 457 in the fall semester and for Interdisciplinary Senior Thesis 458 in the winter semester. Interdisciplinary majors writing an honors thesis register for both Interdisciplinary Senior Thesis 457 and 458. Staff.

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