The material on this page is from the 1997-98 catalog and may be out of date. Please check the current year's catalog for current information.
Professors Kemper and Danforth (on leave, 1997-1998); Associate Professors Eames and Carnegie, Chair; Assistant Professor
Jenkins; Mr. Bourque (on leave, fall semester)
Anthropologists are concerned with understanding human universals, on the one hand, and the uniqueness of individual cultures, on the other. At Bates the program includes both biological and sociocultural perspectives.
Anthropology attempts to make sense, in a non-ethnocentric manner, of everyday life in both familiar and "exotic" settings. In this way the discipline enables students to achieve cultural competence in the broadest sense of the term the ability to function effectively in a multicultural environment, to analyze material from their own and other cultures, and to appreciate the value of the cultural diversity that exists in our world. Some of our recent graduates have pursued careers in public health, international development, teaching, and museum work; some have gone on to graduate work in anthropology and archeology.
Anthropology 101, Social Anthropology, is designed as an introduction to the discipline of anthropology and as a preparation for more advanced courses. The 200-level courses also admit first-year students, but more closely reflect a specific field within anthropology. The 300- and 400-level courses are open to all upperclass students, but the latter are especially designed for majors.
Students majoring in anthropology study the discipline's history and methodology by taking two types of courses: those that focus on a particular cultural area (such as Africa, the Caribbean, native North America, Europe, or South Asia) and courses that focus on a specific theoretical concern. They also conduct individual ethnographic or archeological fieldwork and are encouraged to complement their work in anthropology with participation in a study-abroad program. Major requirements may include course work in other related departments (such as art, biology, geology, languages and literatures, political science, religion, and sociology) and programs (such as African American studies, American cultural studies, Asian studies, environmental studies, and women's studies).
Students majoring in anthropology must complete successfully Anthropology 101, 102, 333, 339, 441, and 458; a course or unit containing a fieldwork component (Anthropology 335, s25, or s32); and at least four other courses in anthropology, not including 360. Two of these elective courses in anthropology may be replaced by two related courses from other departments or programs with departmental approval.
General Education. The following sets are available: 101 and any other anthropology course; or any two anthropology courses that meet the Department's principle of coherence.
102. Archeology and Human Evolution. Introduction to archeological method and theory, together with an introductory survey of human evolution, from the appearance of the first primates to the present day. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology 258. Enrollment limited to 45. B. Bourque.
150. Black Culture and Black Consciousness in Diaspora. The course aims to provide an anthropologic framework for understanding cultural production and meaning through time in black communities in the United States, the Caribbean, and Europe. Distinctiveness as well as commonalities in social and cultural patterning among African diaspora peoples are discussed within the context of the historical and structural conditions that created and continue to engender a diasporic black consciousness. Illustrative material is drawn from popular culture, ethnographies of black family and community life, life histories, and other sources. This course is the same as African American Studies 150 and American Cultural Studies 150. C. Carnegie.
208. Introduction to Medieval Archeology. Archeology is an important tool for investigating medieval societies unrecorded in documents and art. This course introduces archeological methods and recent archeological studies of urban and rural life in Northwestern Europe from 1000 to 1500 A.D. Topics such as early trade, social roles of churches and monastic communities, ethnicity in towns, and peasant economy are discussed, illustrated by slide presentations. Today, teams of historians, social scientists, and physical scientists researching historical and biocultural processes of the Middle Ages, including the Norse settlement of the North Atlantic. The course emphasizes these new, interdisciplinary approaches. This course is the same as Classical and Medieval Studies 208 and History 208. Open to first-year students. G. Bigelow.
225. Gods, Heroes, Magic, and Mysteries: Religion in Ancient Greece. An anthropological and historical approach to ancient Greek religion in which archeological, literary, and art-historical sources are examined and compared with evidence from other cultures to gain an understanding of the role of religion in ancient Greek culture and of changing concepts of the relationship between man and the sacred. Topics to be explored include pre-Homeric and Homeric religion and religious thought, cosmology, mystery cults, civil religion, and manifestations of the irrational, such as dreams, ecstasy, shamanism, and magic. This course is the same as Religion 225. Open to first-year students. L. Danforth, R. Allison.
228. Person and Community in Contemporary Africa. What processes have led to the present conditions on the African continent? The course examines the changing patterns of life in rural and urban Africa. Subjects range from detailed accounts of life in particular communities to the place of Africa in the modern world system. Open to first-year students. E. Eames.
234. Myth, Folklore, and Popular Culture. A variety of texts, including ancient Greek myths, Grimms' folktales, Apache jokes, African proverbs, and Walt Disney comics, are examined in light of important theoretical approaches employed by anthropologists interested in understanding the role of such expressive forms in cultures throughout the world. Major emphasis is placed on psychoanalytic, Marxist, and structuralist approaches. This course is the same as Religion 261. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 80. L. Danforth.
240. Peoples and Societies of South Asia. A broad survey of the societies of South Asia, focusing especially on India and Sri Lanka. The course also presents a more intensive consideration of several representative societies as an introduction to the major cultural institutions of the subcontinent. Open to first-year students. S. Kemper.
241. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion. As human societies change, so do the religious beliefs and
practices these societies follow. The course examines the symbolic forms and acts that relate human beings to the ultimate
conditions of their existence, against the background of the rise of science. Emphasis is upon both Western and non
Western religions. This course is the same as Religion 262. Open to first-year students.
244. Buddhism and the Social Order. The West looks upon Buddhism as an otherworldly religion with little interest in activity in this world. Such has not been the case historically. The Dhamma (Buddhist doctrine) has two wheels, one of righteousness and one of power, one for the other world, and one for this world. Lectures and discussions use this paradigm to consider the several accommodations Buddhism has struck with the realities of power in various Theravada Buddhist societies in ancient India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia. This course is the same as Religion 263. Open to first-year students. S. Kemper.
250. Caribbean Societies: The Emergence of Post-Nationalism. One anthropologist writing of the Caribbean asserts: "Nowhere else in the universe can one look with such certainty into the past and discern the outlines of an undisclosed future." Sociocultural systems in the region have felt the full impact of Western imperial expansion yet have adjusted to it in resilient and creative ways. The course surveys and interprets Caribbean social formations drawing on a variety of sources historical, ethnographic, literary, and visual to present a "post-nationalist" reading of these societies. Open to first-year students. C. Carnegie.
252. The Anthropology of Modernity. Where anthropologists have traditionally focused on small-scale, self-sufficient societies, this course considers modernity a cultural system, part of present-day capitalist enterprise, and a global phenomenon. It does so by considering three practices central to modern social life: consumption, nationalism and transnationalism, and postmodernism. Open to first-year students. S. Kemper.
253. Western North America: Native Cultures, Histories, and Environments. This course has two objectives. The first is to acquaint students with the cultural and historical complexity of the American West. To this end, we are concerned with the West's substantive history its exploration and exploitation, the interplay of European and Native American cultures, the impact of the frontier upon geopolitical imagination, the efflorescence of certain religions, and the rise of industrial capitalism. The second objective is to encourage a critical questioning of received methods of historical and cultural inquiry, with the intention of understanding what it means to construct a historical or cultural "fact." We examine historical, ethnohistorical, and anthropological works for their commonalities and differences, in an attempt to see beyond disciplinary boundaries. Open to first-year students. D. Jenkins.
262. Ethnomusicology: African Diaspora. This introductory course is a survey of key concepts, problems, and
perspectives in ethnomusicological theory drawing upon the African diaspora as a cross-cultural framework. This course
focuses on the social, political, and intellectual forces of African culture that contributed to the growth of ethnomusicology
from the late nineteenth century to the present. This course is the same as Music 262 and African American Studies 262.
Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25.
275. Gender Relations in Comparative Perspective. A comparative analysis, utilizing new feminist approaches in anthropology and psychology, of the social construction of gender in contemporary societies, with a focus on West African, East Asian, and North American notions of gender identity and gender relations. Open to first-year students. E. Eames.
322. First Encounters: European "Discovery" and North American Indians. Columbus's "discovery" of America was a major event in human history because it put Old and New World populations in contact after millennia of isolation. This course examines factors leading up to the "discovery" and the calamitous impact of early colonization upon Native Americans. Prerequisite(s): Anthropology 101. B. Bourque.
325. Ethnicity, Nation, and World Community. The course explores the means by which social identities are constructed as ethnicity and nations. It focuses on how representations taken from categories of everyday life such as race, religion, gender, sexuality are deployed to give these group loyalties the aura of a national, timeless authority. This inquiry into ethnicity and nation as cultural fabrications allows for exploration of the possibility of global community not simply in its institutional dimensions, but as a condition of consciousness. Prerequisites: any course in anthropology, political science, or sociology. C. Carnegie.
333. Culture and Interpretation. Beginning with a consideration of symbolic anthro- pology as it developed in the 1960s and 1970s, this course surveys critiques of the anthropological turn to the study of social life from the actor's point of view. Emphasis is placed on feminism, reflexive ethnography, and postmodernism. S. Kemper.
335. The Ethnographer's Craft. Much of contemporary theoretical discussion in anthropology derives from self-conscious reflection on what its practitioners do fieldwork and how they write about it. By reading a selection of classic and contemporary ethnographies along with critical discourse on their formulation, and by conducting individual ethnographic research, participants examine questions of representation, audience, power, and ethical responsibility entailed by ethnography. The concern is with both craft and craftiness, skill and artifice. Prerequisite(s): Anthropology 101. C. Carnegie.
336. Ethnohistory of the Andes. This course is an introduction to the cultures and histories of the Central Andes and
western coastal regions of South America. We study the effects of Spanish conquest on native religion, healing practices,
and social and political organization in an attempt to understand indigenous responses to Spanish colonialism. Our point of
view is that native peoples were active agents in the creation and recreation of their cultures in the face of Spanish
domination. Recommended background: Anthropology 101. Not open to students who have received credit for Anthropology
339. Production and Reproduction. Economic anthropology challenges the assumptions of conventional economics by analyzing economic behavior from a cross-cultural perspective. This course looks at the relation between economy and society through a critical examination of neoclassical, substantivist, Marxist, and ecological approaches in anthropology. The relative merits of these explanatory paradigms are assessed as we engage ethnographic case material. Such "economic facts" as production, exchange, land tenure, marriage transactions, state formation, and social change in the modern world-system are addressed, always in comparative perspective. Prerequisite(s): two courses in economics and/or anthropology. E. Eames.
340. Visual Anthropology: Perception, Symbolism, and Culture. This course is a cross-cultural examination of perceptual experience. We explore how and why different societies emphasize different senses, and why Western society appears to privilege vision and visual representation. Cross-cultural conceptions of the body and its abilities are discussed. Prerequisite(s): Anthropology 101. Enrollment limited to 20. D. Jenkins.
347. New World Archeology. A topical survey of New World prehistory emphasizing North America, Mesoamerica, and
the Andes. Prerequisite(s): Anthropology 258.
352. Sociology of Colonialism. This course analyzes the colonial experience, focusing on the African case within its historical, sociological, and ideological context. The history, theory, and practice of colonialism and neocolonialism are presented through social-science material, historical documents, literature, film, and the popular press. Prerequisites: relevant life experience or a course in anthropology, sociology, political science, or history. Written permission of the instructor is required. E. Eames.
360. Independent Study. Designed for the student who may have particular interests in areas of study that go beyond the regular course offerings. Permission of the Department is required prior to registration, and a detailed, typed prospectus must be submitted to the Chair as part of the request. Students are limited to one independent study per semester. Staff.
441. History of Anthropological Theory. A consideration of major theories in the development of the field of anthropology, with an emphasis on the fundamental issues of orientation and definition that have shaped and continue to influence anthropological thought. Topics include cultural evolution, the relationship between the individual and culture, the nature-nurture debate, British social anthropology, and French structuralism. D. Jenkins.
457, 458. Senior Thesis. Individual and group conferences in connection with the writing of the senior thesis. Students register for Anthropology 457 in the fall semester. Students register for Anthropology 458 in the Winter semester. Majors writing an honors thesis register for both Anthropology 457 and 458. One course credit is given for each registration. Prerequisite(s): approval by the Department of a thesis prospectus prior to registration. Staff.
Short Term Units
s22. The Politics of Cultural Expression: African Films and Filmmaking. African films as self-representation challenge stereotypical images of the continent in Hollywood movies. They are part of the creation of new images in the post-independence era that help forge national identities through reinvention of a shared past. Using feature films produced by Africans for an African audience, this unit explores that struggle and the challenges faced in contemporary society as seen through African eyes. This unit is the same as Political Science s22. Recommended background: one course in African studies and/or film studies. Enrollment limited to 35. E. Eames.
s23. Environment and Environmentalism: Native and European Land Use in the American West. This unit introduces native American and European practices and attitudes toward the environment. The geographic focus is on the American West, with special attention paid to the Colorado plateau and the Great Basin. A five-day backpack trip down Grand Gulch, and a five-day float trip down the San Juan River (both in southern Utah), give students firsthand experience with environmental conditions, archeological sites, and land-use problems in the West. Open to first-year students. Enrollment limited to 15. D. Jenkins.
s25. Ethnicity, Bilingualism, Religion, and Gender: Topics in Ethnographic Fieldwork. After reading selected works on the nature of ethnographic fieldwork, on the political and ethical implications of such fieldwork, and on the different genres of ethnographic writing, students conduct individual research projects in the Lewiston-Auburn area. Possible topics include ethnic identity, bilingualism, religious conversion, and gender roles. Enrollment limited to 12. L. Danforth.
s27. Religion and Society in Contemporary Bali. This unit exposes students firsthand to a society that is the exuberant
example of a Hindu-Buddhist civilization that once spread over great parts of Southeast Asia. It attempts to understand the
interaction of religion and society in Bali from ordinary people's involvement in an elaborate ritual calendar to the way
traditional practice has responded to the presence of tourists by way of readings, interviews, lectures, demonstrations,
and fieldwork. Recommended background: course work on Hinduism, Buddhism, South Asia, Southeast Asia. Open to first
year students. Enrollment limited to 8. Written permission of the instructor is required.
s29. Nigerian Narratives: The Construction of History in the Works of Chinua Achebe and His Contemporaries. All five novels written by the internationally acclaimed literary figure (and Bates honorand) Chinua Achebe form the centerpiece of this unit. Starting with Things Fall Apart and ending with Anthills of the Savannah, our topic is the last one hundred years of Nigerian social history. Other material rounds out this story of struggle and survival in the face of social upheaval: fiction by Soyinka, Nwapa, Aluko, and Emecheta; poetry; myth; oral history; musical performance; and films by African directors. Achebe's reworking and retelling of his people's past are juxtaposed with readings from ethnographic, historical, and press sources, in an effort to understand the power of a storyteller to shape his/her world. Enrollment limited to 15. E. Eames.
s32. Introduction to Archeological Fieldwork. This field course offers basic training in archeological survey, excavation, and analysis through work on prehistoric sites in the Lewiston area. B. Bourque.
s50. Individual Research. Registration in this unit is granted by the Department only after the student has submitted a written proposal for a full-time research project to be completed during the Short Term and has secured the sponsorship of a member of the Department to direct the study and evaluate results. Students are limited to one individual research unit. Staff.