The material on this page is from the 1995-96 catalog and may be out of date. Please check the current year's catalog for current information.
Professor Hodgkin; Associate Professors Corlett, Kessler, Chair, MacLeod, and Richter; Assistant Professor Hill (on leave, 1995-1996); Ms. Gordon-Mora
The major in political science offers students the opportunity to examine politics from a variety of theoretical, cultural, and methodological perspectives. By raising fundamental questions about politics, courses encourage students to reflect carefully about the behaviors, institutions, ideologies, and dynamics of political life. We ask students to reexamine their commonsense assumptions regarding politics, and to learn to think and write critically about political questions. As the study of politics is inherently multidisciplinary, we stress the importance of the diversity of the political experience, including a global range of cultural issues that address the role of race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and gender in political life.
Major Requirements. Students majoring in political science must complete ten courses or units.
Major Concentrations. Students must either complete four courses/units in one of these approved areas or successfully petition the Department to develop their own concentration.
Multicultural Studies. Multicultural studies explore the complexity of human difference and political activity in local and global settings. Multicultural courses in political science contribute, each in specific ways, to discussions of human diversity across asymmetries of social, political, and economic power.
If the courses selected within the major concentration do not already meet this requirement, the student must complete three courses in multicultural studies, one of which must be non-Western. Non-Western courses include Political Science 120, 232, 235, 246, 247, 248, 249, 346, 352, 372, 374. Other courses in multicultural studies include Political Science 118, 155, 191, 214, 295, 298, 310, 325, 329, 347, 376, 393.
Declaring a Major in Political Science. To declare a major in political science, the student must complete both the College's and the Department's major declaration forms. The student should complete the Department's form in consultation with a major advisor, chosen on the basis of the student's plans for a major concentration. The student is expected to select courses within a major concentration that will serve as the area of a potential thesis topic. A new form must be completed if the student's interests change.
General Education. Any 100-level and 200-level course combination within any one of the major concentrations listed above may serve as a department-designated set. If a 100-level course is not offered, the student may petition the Department for a different combination. The quantitative requirement may be satisfied through Political Science 310 or 322.
115. American Government and Public Policy. An introductory description and analysis of American governmental and political institutions and processes, with particular focus upon the formulation and administration of public policy. Enrollment is limited to 50 per section. Mr. Hodgkin. W
118. Law and Politics. An examination of the political nature of law, legal processes, and legal institutions. Special emphasis on the participation of women and people of color in the legal system and the impact of race and class on legal processes and outcomes. Topics may include stratification in the legal profession, the law school experience, criminal justice, legal discourse, and the utility of law for effecting social and political change. Enrollment is limited to 50 per section. Mr. Kessler. F
120. The Moral Foundations of Comparative Political Inquiry. Why do some people eke out a living in a Third World village, while others enjoy life in a Western suburb? Why is there war? Why do some people exercise power over others? Are these things wrong and could humans interact differently? These questions of justice, responsibility, human nature, and power are at the center of political study. This course introduces the moral questions of comparative politics through a cross-cultural and historical selection of theoretical works and case studies. The objectives are an understanding of the basic themes of comparative politics and an exploration of the question: what does moral responsibility mean to the contemporary citizen of the new global community? Enrollment is limited to 50 per section. Ms. MacLeod. W
155. Women, Power, and Political Systems: Introduction to Women and Politics. Recent scholarship examines roles and activities of women in political systems and the impact of women's participation on political life and public policy. Does sex make a difference? Does women's participation affect power relations between the sexes? This introduction uses the lenses of various fields in the discipline--voter behavior, constitutional law, comparative politics, and international relations--to examine women as political actors and to consider how notions of gender difference affect women's access to and exercise of power in public decision making and government. Enrollment is limited to 50 per section. [Ms. Hill].
161. Patterns in Political Systems. Political science is more than the simple accumulation of information on disjointed, particular, country-specific cases. Rather, it involves the more complex process of establishing patterns of contrasts and similarities among nations. These patterns serve, among other things, to distinguish and anticipate processes of evolution, deterioration, or transformation of political systems. This course introduces students to theories and methods of comparative analysis, while studying examples from the First World of industrialized nations, the Second World of former Communist nations, and the Third World of developing nations. Enrollment is limited to 50 per section. Ms. Gordon-Mora. F
171. International Politics. This course explores some of the many structures and processes that organize world politics, including the system of sovereign states, the global capitalist economy, and the varied meanings assigned to "nation" and "gender." To examine how these structures reinforce, intrude upon, and sometimes subvert each other, this course focuses on specific case studies such as international efforts to regulate ozone depletion, nuclear proliferation, the politics of international trade, and world population policies. Enrollment is limited to 50 per section. Mr. Richter. F
191. Western Political Theory. The course examines the relation of Western political thought to current struggles against various forms of oppression. When white Western male theorists use the language of truth and justice, law and order, or rights and liberty, do they speak for everyone? Or do their writings reinforce asymmetries of economic and social power? Students consider various responses to questions such as these, while reading and discussing selections from Plato, Machiavelli, Locke, Wollstonecraft, and Marx. Enrollment is limited to 50 per section. Mr. Corlett. F
211. American Parties and Elections. The structures, activities, and functions of parties in the American political system. Description and analysis of elections, voter behavior, campaign strategy and finance, and the role of parties in the operation of government. Open to first-year students. Mr. Hodgkin. W
212. Media and Politics. A study of the politics of news gathering and dissemination by the American print and electronic media, with an emphasis on the substantive content of news-media coverage and its power in shaping political consciousness and behavior. Topics may include the evolution of objectivity norms; journalistic bias; coverage of political campaigns, social movements, and public policy; and the impact of media on political discourse and citizen preferences. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. [Mr. Kessler].
214. City Politics. The government and politics of cities, towns, counties, and special districts, with emphasis on metropolitan areas and suburbia. Topics include analysis of governing coalitions, racial politics, problems of spending and taxation, and the dependence of cities on decisions by corporations and by state and national governments. Open to first-year students. Mr. Hodgkin. F
217. The American Presidency. An examination of 1) theories of political leadership underlying the American executive, 2) constitutional and statutory definitions of its formal powers, and 3) description and analysis of the behavior of presidents and their role in the American political system. Open to first-year students. [Mr. Hodgkin].
227. Judicial Power and Economic Policy. An introduction to the political nature and policy-making role of the U.S. Supreme Court in particular. It concentrates on (1) the establishment of judicial review and some limits on the exercise of this power, and (2) the role of American courts in making public policy with respect to such matters as taxation, labor unions, and the regulation of business and industry. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. [Mr. Kessler].
228o. Constitutional Freedoms. An analysis of judicial interpretations of freedoms provided in the First Amendment. Topics may include subversive advocacy, obscenity and pornography, libel, fighting words, hate speech, commercial expression, freedoms of the press, freedom of association, free exercise of religion, and prohibitions against state establishment of religion. Students read and discuss Supreme Court opinions and commentaries. Recommended background: Political Science 118 and/or 227. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. Mr. Kessler. W
232. The Politics of Post-Communism. The continuing upheaval in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe provides a unique opportunity to examine why things change and why they stay the same. This course investigates the experience of Russia, at least one of the new states in Central Asia, and at least one of the states in Central Europe to compare and contrast different responses to issues that all countries abandoning Soviet-style communism must face, including the creation of a civil society, economic and institutional transformation, the rearrangement of class structures, the status of women, and nationalism. Open to first-year students. Not open to students who have received credit for Political Science 234. Enrollment is limited to 40. Mr. Richter. F
235. Black Women in the Americas. Political economy is the framework for examining black women's status, roles, and activities in the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America. The course surveys political, economic, social, and cultural experiences of women of African descent, paying close attention to similar historical experiences--African heritage, slavery, post-emancipation struggles for political rights, and economic security--as well as to factors such as class and nationality that make for divergent experiences. Review of current issues highlights differences in the impact of gender, race, ethnicity, and class on black women's lives in First and Third World societies. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. [Ms. Hill].
244. Political Imagination. Has society lost the ability to imagine and create alternative political arrangements? This course uses theoretical and cross-cultural materials to explore the nature of political imagination. What are the sources of political imagination? What constraints limit the envisioning of alternative polities? How do identity differences shape imagining, and who typically voices alternatives? What is the relationship between art, popular culture, and politics? Our objective is to explore the politics of consciousness in the West and across cultural boundaries (Middle East and China) to better understand the nature of political creativity. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. Ms. MacLeod. W
246. African Politics: States and Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study of political systems of African states south of the Sahara includes examination of traditional political structures, inter-ethnic relations, and the nature and legacy of colonialism. Main attention is given to the schematic analysis of the political structures that have been evolving since the end of World War II. Problems of nation-building, modernization, and political development are emphasized within a framework of political economy. Enrollment is limited to 40. [Ms. Hill].
247. Regional Politics in Southern Africa: Transition and Transformation. Two questions inform this study of post-World War II politics in Southern Africa: What are the dimensions of internal political transformation? and How do they affect interstate political and economic relations in the region? Using a framework that explores political change, this course examines political, economic, and social features of anti-colonial and liberation struggles, territorial occupation and intra-regional war, and anti-apartheid resistance to discover the enduring factors underlying state formation, regional political economy, economic cooperation, and interstate relations. Close scrutiny of ongoing crisis and change in South Africa and their impact on development in the region is a substantial focus of the course. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. [Ms. Hill].
248. Politics of the Middle East. An examination of the forces shaping Middle East politics centering on the dynamics of political change and the politics of identity and legitimacy. After exploring the historical background, Islam and Islamic culture, and the colonial experience, we turn to case examples, including Lebanon, the Iranian revolution, the Palestinian question, and the Persian Gulf crisis, to develop our understanding of both formal, state-level politics and the crucial politics of informal groups and the household. Considerable attention is focused on the dislocations and opportunities produced by the interplay between tradition and modernity. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 30 per section. Ms. MacLeod. F
249. Politics of Latin America. This course reviews some of the main economic and political issues confronting Latin America today: economic development, international debt, the breakdown of democracies, authoritarianism, revolution, and the role of working-class, women's, and peasant movements. Several analytical perspectives are introduced and evaluated in an attempt to outline general patterns in the political development of the continent. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. Ms. Gordon-Mora. W
276. American Foreign Policy. A study of the problems and processes of American foreign policy. It considers the historical and institutional setting for this policy, then examines the challenges facing U.S. foreign policy in the contemporary world. Special attention is given to the conflict between an effective foreign policy and American democracy. Enrollment is limited to 30 per section. [Mr. Richter].
295. Reading Marx, Rethinking Marxisms. Students practice different ways of reading and rethinking the work of Karl Marx. The first part of the course permits unrushed, close reading and discussion of Marx's most well-known texts. The second part emphasizes recent efforts by critical theorists to revise the original doctrine without abandoning radical politics. Topics for reading and discussion include various Marxist feminisms, Marxist literary theory, and other Marxist interventions against capitalism. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. [Mr. Corlett].
296. Contract and Community. Western political thought frequently explores relationships -- including contracts and community -- between individuals and the state, but the terms of this discourse are hotly contested. Why do "contracts" so often seem to ignore the unequal power of the parties involved? Must terms like "community" erase the politics of human difference? How do categories such as "individual" and "state" restrict even the politics of privileged men as well as neglect considerations of women, race, and class? Students read and discuss a variety of texts, including Hobbes, Rousseau, and contemporary theorists. Open to first-year students. Not open to students who have received credit for Political Science 292, 293. Enrollment is limited to 40. Mr. Corlett. F
297. The Household and Political Theory. Western political theories often acknowledge, either implicitly or explicitly, the importance of domestic considerations--such as child-bearing, sexual relations, and issues of home economics--but rarely appreciate their political significance. And sometimes theorists who acknowledge that the personal is political miss the significance of the so-called racial classification or class position of the domestic situations they study. Drawing from Western and non-Western feminist, socialist, and other sources, this course stresses close reading of theories that highlight the politics of domestic life. Because many of these arguments involve criticism of Western political thought, students also study how various Western classics (for example, Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, or Hegel) situate domesticity. Recommended background: Political Science 191. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. Mr. Corlett. W
298. Sexuality and the Politics of Difference. Picture females and males learning how to be women and men by distancing themselves from each other's prescribed gender roles. What's missing in this picture? Identity politics often gives the impression that patterns of self and other are fixed in nature, culture, or both. The politics of difference marks a refusal to reduce life's ambiguities to orderly patterns. Various gay and lesbian constructions of sexuality provide suggestive terrain for exploring how theories of difference undermine fixed patterns of sexuality. Students read, discuss, and write about recent work in political theory within a context of difference influenced in part by Foucault, Lacan, and Derrida. Recommended background: Political Science 191. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 40. [Mr. Corlett].
310o. Public Opinion. An analysis of controversies concerning the formation, nature, and role of public opinion in American politics. The course examines attitudes on selected current issues among persons with a variety of social and economic backgrounds. Students learn the methodology of sample surveys (polls), appropriate statistics, and how to use the computer to analyze data. No previous knowledge of statistics or computing is assumed. Prerequisite: Political Science 115 or 211 or 212. Enrollment is limited to 16. Mr. Hodgkin. F
322e. American Legislative Behavior. Analysis of the behavior of American legislators, including such topics as constituency relations, norms and roles, committee decision-making, leadership strategies, determinants of roll-call voting, and patterns of legislative policy-making. Students learn appropriate statistics and how to use the computer to analyze roll-call votes or other behavior. No previous knowledge of statistics or computing is assumed. Prerequisite: Political Science 115 or 211 or 217. Enrollment is limited to 16. [Mr. Hodgkin].
325. Constitutional Rights and Social Change. An exploration of relationships between constitutional rights and movements for social change. Rights are examined as legal declarations that empower the oppressed, as ideological constructions that reinforce privilege, and as resources of unknown value that may be employed in political struggle. The utility of rights is examined in the American civil-rights and women's-rights movements. Prerequisite: Political Science 118, or 277, or 228, or 229. Enrollment is limited to 15. Mr. Kessler. W
329. Law and Gender. An analysis of legal constructions of gender and women's rights in legal documents, legal processes, and judicial decisions. Among the theoretical issues addressed are debates over conventional equality approaches in legal doctrine, equality versus difference perspectives, ways in which legal language constructs gender, the incorporation of gender in ideologies of law, and the intersection of gender and race in legal doctrine and theory. Prerequisite: Political Science 118 or 227 or 228. Open to first-year students. Enrollment is limited to 15. [Mr. Kessler].
346. Power and Protest. The role of subordinates in power relations ranges from resigned acceptance of exploitation to active revolution. This course examines the nature of power; the focus is a comparative study of the parts played by subordinate groups in different power relationships and cultural contexts. Readings and discussion center on a combination of theoretical studies of power, and case materials, primarily on peasants and women in the developing world. The goal is to understand the meaning of "resistance." Recommended background: a course in comparative politics or political theory. Enrollment is limited to 15. Ms. MacLeod. F
347. Gender and the State. Two key questions provide the focus in this course: How is gender related to definitions of citizenship, politics, and the state? What is the nature of women's political roles and activities in contemporary societies? Connections between gender and politics made by political theorists form the basis for examining women's relationship to states cross-nationally. The impact of gender in shaping women's and men's political status, roles, and behavior in political institutions and public policy is a focus of study. The course culminates in an examination of women's political activism directed toward redefining their roles in politics and controlling important aspects of their lives, thus articulating different visions of women's relationship to the state. Recommended background: Political Science 155, 191, or 346. Permission of the instructor is required. Enrollment is limited to 15. [Ms. Hill].
352. Women as Political Subjects. The ambiguities of women's agency within relations of power is the central theme of this seminar. How do women construct identity in the face of domination? How can women speak with an authentic voice within relations of power? How can alternatives be created, and what is women's part in political transformations? Should feminist theory insist on retaining an idea of woman as subject at all? Using a diverse range of theoretical works and case studies, drawn from the Western political tradition, feminist theory, and the developing world, we consider the politics of constructing the self. The objective is to explore women's subjectivity and the politics of identity and voice in cross-cultural perspective. Recommended background: political theory or comparative politics course. Enrollment is limited to 15. [Ms. MacLeod].
360. Independent Study. Guided reading, writing, and discussion on selected topics approved by the Department. This does not satisfy the Department's requirement of a 300-level course. Staff.
365. Special Topics. A course or seminar offered from time to time and reserved for a special topic selected by the Department. Satisfies the Department's 300-level requirement only if specified in individual course description. May be taken more than once for credit. Staff.
372. Nationalism and Political Identification. Amidst the economic talk of "globalization," political events of the past few years have underlined the central political significance of nationalism and culturally related sources of political identification. Students explore the significance and mobilizing force of cultural, ethnic, and racial forms of identification and how these undermine the homogenizing expectations of both liberal-conservative and traditional Marxist theories on development. Particular attention is given to developing a historical and theoretical understanding of the category "nationalism," and to post-colonial writings. Recommended background: a course in comparative politics. Enrollment is limited to 15. Ms. Gordon-Mora. W
374. The Latin Caribbean: Reconsidering Dependency. This seminar familiarizes the student with the present sociopolitical situation of four island-nations of the Greater Antilles: Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Particular attention is placed on developing a theoretical understanding of dependency as a framework for analysis in understanding the problems of identity, political development, and democracy in the situation of "geographical insignificance" that the nations of the Caribbean are sometimes said to represent. Recommended background: courses in comparative politics. Enrollment is limited to 15. Ms. Gordon-Mora. F
376. Poverty and Democracy. In the wake of capitalist disorganization experienced in the 1980s in advanced societies, a renewed criticism of social-welfare programs has exploded. In its most recent Western manifestations, it is associated with the growing strength of neo-conservative groups, as well as with "liberalization" economic policies. This course examines how attacks on the poor are connected to the evolution of capitalism. It interrogates the concept of "democracy," asking if it is related to the achievement of social justice. Prerequisite: a course in political science. Enrollment is limited to 15. [Ms. Gordon-Mora].
383e. Change in the International System. This course consists of a theoretical exploration of international systemic change. It examines different conceptualizations of the international system and their explanations for systemic transformations. Additional emphasis is given to the interaction of the international system and the domestic politics of leading powers. Students are required to write a research paper evaluating these theories in light of the collapse of the postwar system. Prerequisite: Political Science 171. Enrollment is limited to 20. [Mr. Richter].
385o. Organizing Politics. Institutions structure behavior and thinking. They make life predictable and manageable, but perpetuate war and social discrimination. This course dissects diverse institutions from the global interstate system to American small liberal-arts colleges to examine how they are put together, how they reproduce certain images of the world, and how they change. Readings and discussion pay particular attention to the relation between institutions, identity, and ideology. Recommended background: Political Science 171, 217. Written permission of the instructor is required. Enrollment is limited to 15. [Mr. Richter].
393. Environmental Justice. A critical examination of environmental thought at the intersection of contemporary arguments on political rights, social equality, and economic development. When does public regulation of health in the workplace and community conflict with the property rights of private corporations? Where does environmental thought illuminate and where does it obfuscate local and global problems related to racism and sexism? How does contemporary thinking about environmental problems come to terms with uneven economic development at home and abroad? Students think critically about arguments concerning environmental racism, eco-feminism, sustainable development, deep ecology, green political activism, and other issues from a variety of political perspectives. Prerequisites: two courses in political science or permission of the instructor to preregister. Recommended background: Political Science 191. Enrollment is limited to 15. [Mr. Corlett].
421. Congressional Internship. Part-time internships, primarily in local offices of members of the Maine delegation in the United States Congress. Reading and writing on congressional staffs, constituencies, and relations with the bureaucracy. Prerequisites: Political Science 115 or 322 and written permission of the instructor. Enrollment is limited to available positions. Mr. Hodgkin. F W
457, 458. Senior Thesis. Discussion of methods of research and writing, oral reports, and regular individual consultation with instructors. Required of political-science majors. Honors majors take 457-458; non-honors majors, 457 only. Prerequisite: one 300-level seminar in political science. Staff.
s20. Environmental Politics. A practice-oriented unit on the development of environmental quality as a political issue, and the government policies and interest-group tactics that have resulted. Case studies, simulations, class discussions, and policy analyses illuminate methods of resolving environmental political issues. Enrollment is limited to 25. Staff.
s2l. Internships in Community Service. Students gain exposure to daily living experiences different from their own through service internship placements in such settings as shelters for the homeless and for abused women, soup kitchens, and food banks. Participants meet with the instructor to explore relationships between academic writings related to the people they serve and their own internship experiences and observations. Enrollment is limited to 20. Mr. Kessler.
s22. The Politics of Cultural Expression: African Films and Filmmaking. African films as self-representation challenge stereotypical images of the continent in Hollywood movies. They are part of the creation of new images in the post-independence era which help forge national identities through reinvention of a shared past and visions of ideal futures. Using feature films produced by Africans for an African audience, this unit explores that struggle and the challenges faced in contemporary society as seen through African eyes. This unit is the same as Anthropology s22. Recommended background: a course in African studies and/or film studies. Enrollment is limited to 35. [Ms. Eames, Ms. Hill].
s23. Organized Interests and American Democracy. The role and function of interest groups in the American political system. Examines relations between membership and leaders, techniques used to influence political outcomes, and their impact on public policy. Students engage in a group research project on lobbying or political-action committees in Maine. Enrollment is limited to 15. [Mr. Hodgkin].
s25. Labor, Class, Community Action. Students practice using class as an organizing principle in political theory. The unit emphasizes analysis and evaluation of arguments that relate class to problems of labor organization and community action. Readings include selections from the classics (such as Marx and Weber) as well as recent theoretical work that pays close attention to gender and race. Class projects may focus on local community organization, the politics of labor in the United States, or more global labor movements. Recommended background: Political Science 191. Enrollment is limited to 20. Mr. Corlett.
s26. Cairo: The Politics of Everyday Life. This unit centers on understanding the politics of everyday life in cross-cultural perspective. Students spend two weeks in Lewiston studying Islam and Islamic revivalism, conversational Arabic, Egyptian history, patrimonial politics and the authoritarian/modernizing state, and the dynamics of the household and informal networks in the Arab world. Students also read in the literature on the negotiations and interactions of everyday politics. Field research projects in Cairo occupy the remaining three weeks of the term. Projects, lectures, travel, and discussions focus on understanding the everyday politics of different class, religious, and gender groups. Recommended background: course in Middle East or developing world politics and/or Arabic language. Written permission of the instructor is required. Enrollment is limited to 7. [Ms. MacLeod].
s27. Nationalism in Eastern and Central Europe. Nationalist tensions plague Eastern and Central Europe today as they have through much of modern history. This unit studies this region to explore more general issues of nationalism and national identity. How do nations define themselves? How do these "imagined communities" command such fierce loyalties? What are the politics of nationalism in a multinational state? How and why do national identities change? Enrollment is limited to 25. Mr. Richter.
s28. The Resurgence of Political Islam. Is political Islam a reactionary return to medieval religious politics and a threat to the West, to secularism, and to democracy? Or is Islamism a progressive political movement voicing the interests of the poor, and creating a renaissance of culture and political opportunity in Islamic lands? In either case, Islam may well be the major political force of the twenty-first century. This unit uses translated writings, fiction, and film to understand the contemporary resurgence of political Islam. Enrollment is limited to 24. Ms. MacLeod.
s31. Internships in State and Local Government and Politics. A seminar on the performance and politics of state and local governments. Research relevant to some particular aspect of subnational governance and policy making is examined and applied to an internship or other field experience in the state legislature, state or local administration, party organization, or political campaign. Prerequisite: an appropriate American government course. Permission of the instructor is required. Enrollment is limited to 20. Mr. Hodgkin.
s34. Politics in a Postmodern World. Postmodernism has been defined as the ability to live in a context of contradiction and permanent change; this unit explores the political implications of the postmodern experience. What is the modernist project? Are we really in a postmodern age? What does postmodernism mean for those still struggling to be "modern" in the developing world? Does popular culture offer a route for political resistance, or only increased domination? This unit is a seminar, with student discussion of course materials and group field research on cultural politics culminating in final projects. Enrollment is limited to 12. Ms. MacLeod.
s50. Individual Research. Registration in this unit is granted by the Department only after the student has submitted a written proposal for a full-time research project to be completed during the Short Term and has secured the sponsorship of a member of the Department to direct the study and evaluate results. Staff.
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Last modified: August 14, 1995