C20 - Ablative Constructions
The ablative case is used to designate three types of ideas: seperation, instrumentality, and location. In English we designate these ideas with the prepositions: from (separation); with, by (instrumentality); and in/at (location).
ablative constructions with prepositions
ablative of manner (C14)
Construction: verb plus preposition (usually cum) with object of prep in abl designating the way in which the verb is performed.
If the noun indicating manner is modified, the preposition is often omitted:
e.g.: magnä celeritäte vënit: he came with great speed.
ablative of accompaniment (C14)
Construction: noun in abl as obj of cum indicating those accompaning
ablative with cardinal numbers (C15) [alternative to the genitive of the whole]
Construction: cardinal number or the word quïdam ["a certain one" - C26] plus the prepositions ë/ex or dë plus a noun designating the whole in the ablative. Note - you may never use this construction with mïlia (one thousand).
ablative of agent (C18)
Construction: passive verb; agent in ablative as object of ä/ab
If the passive verb is performed by an inanimate agent use the ablative of means or instrument.
ablative constructions without prepositions
ablative of means or instrument (C14)
Construction: verb plus noun in the ablative designating how the verb was accomplished
ablative of time (C15) [a temporal locative]
Construction: temporal noun/adj in ablative: => time when or time within which
e.g.: in diëbus decem: within ten days