CHAPTER 12: THE PERFECT
- tenses formed off the 3rd principal
part (= 1 sing perf ind act: e.g. laudävï
- perfect, future perfect and
- the perfect system is used to describe
completed kinds of actions:
- a completed action in the past
- a present state that exists because
of a completed past action (simple occurance with enduring
- e.g. "Casey is happy because I
have given her a treat."
- a past action that was completed
before a subsequent past action (simple occurance completed in
- e.g. Casey had eaten the bone
before I sat down.
- contrast these senses of time with the imperfect
- e.g. "Casey always barked when the phone rang."
- e.g. "Casey used to chase squirrels."
- i.e. - a past action that occured over a period of time or
was repeated or habitual.
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