CHAPTER 12: THE PERFECT TENSE


all 3rd principal parts end in "ï"; the perfect stem is formed by dropping the "ï" from the 3rd principal part and adding perfect endings to the perfect stem

endings: (perfect)

1

ï

imus

2

istï

istis

3

it

ërunt

perfect of laudö, laudäre, laudävï, laudätum

laudävï laudävimus
laudävistï laudävistis
laudävit laudävërunt

 

endings: (future perfect) (perfect stem plus future of sum [except 3pl])

1

erö

erimus

2

eris

eritis

3

erit

erint

future perfect of moneö, monëre, monuï, monitum

monuerö monuerimus
monueris monueritis
monuerit monuerint

 

 

endings: (pluperfect) (perfect stem plus imperfect of sum)

1

eram

erämus

2

eräs

erätis

3

erat

erant

pluperfect of dïcö, dïcere, dïxï, dictum

dïxeram dïxerämus
dïxeräs dïxerätis
dïxerat dïxerant

 


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