Chapter 10: 4th Conjugation and 3rd Conjugation -iö Verbs - Present and Imperative

The formation of the present tense in the 4th Conjugations involves adding the endings to the stem with the -ï. The 3rd Conjugation -iö Verbs looks essentially the same with a short -i in the stem.
E.g. audï/re = audï plus s = audïs
Remember, the -ï becomes short before other vowels and "t".

4th Conjugation - Present Indicative Active

audiö - audïmus
audïs - audïtis
audit - audiunt
3rd Conjugation -iö - Present Indicative Active
capiö - capimus
capis - capitis
capit - capiunt
Nöta bene: there is an extra "u" in the 3rd person pres plural. Don't question it, just memorize it.

A word from the philologists on the "io" verbs:

Verbs of the Third Conjugation in "iö" have certain forms of the present stem like the fourth conjugation. They lose the i of the stem before a consonant and also before i, ï, and e (except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive).[1][This is a practical working rule. The actual explanation of the forms of such verbs is not fully understood.] [Allen and Greenough Latin Grammar, 188].

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